Fostering interdisciplinary collaboration for global public and animal health
4 - 6 October 2015 in Davos, Switzerland
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MON4.1: The One Health Approach in Action - Programmes and Initiatives
Time: 05/Oct/2015: 2:10pm-3:40pm · Location: Jakobshorn
An Operational Tool to Enhance One Health Interdisciplinarity
University of Bologna, Italy
The development of analytical methodologies along the human history allowed for the greatest scientific achievements at the cost of a less comprehensive understanding of real phenomena, in terms of context, side effects, and feedbacks. The One Health (OH) approach requires that disciplinary barriers are removed for a global understanding of complex health problems. Especially with the increasing interaction of socio-economic systems in the globalized context, a real need for a renewed approach to health issues does exist and is theoretically justified, but few essays have been developed to quantify the advantages of OH in comparison with the traditional mono-disciplinary methods. In 2014, partners from 20 European countries have organized a network (NEOH - http://neoh.onehealthglobal.net/) to study in depth the problem of OH evaluation, according to an interdisciplinary approach. NEOH is a Trans Domain Action of the European Programme COST. This paper is an individual contribution within the NEOH framework. It focuses on a system approach and interdisciplinarity: the two basic conceptual references to build up a global and holistic understanding of complex health problems. In this paper, the authors develop a multi-disciplinary matrix to approach the scientific complexity of real health cases. Complexity is tackled with a system scheme based on the combination of simple epidemiologic and socio-economic models to reach an all-inclusive understanding of each examined case. According to this approach, a matrix allows to attribute the multiple aspects and effects of the disease to specific expertise. The aim of the matrix is to identify the existing scientific and cultural borders among disciplines, the grey areas of knowledge (where knowledge is missing), and the overlapping territories (where analytical competences are redundant and/or cooperative). This procedure intends to be a pivotal tool to coordinate different disciplinary competences and increase effectiveness in health research, policy and management.
TUE4.2: The One Health Approach for Communicable Diseases
Time: 06/Oct/2015: 1:15pm-2:15pm · Location: Pischa
The Economic Dimension Of Vector-Borne Disease Ecology: Public Costs Of Aedes Albopictus Control In Europe, A Case Study
University of Bologna, Italy
Aedes albopictus, or Asian tiger mosquito, invaded in the last decades a wide area of the World and is considered one of the most invasive mosquito species, with a very aggressive behaviour and specific aptitudes to infest urban ecosystems. It is also a known vector of important human and animal diseases, especially caused by viruses and nematodes, and has proved capacity for local transmission of Chikungunya and Dengue within Europe. Its global expansion has been facilitated by growth of international trade and movement of people. Prevention of diseases vectored by this Culicidae largely depends on the management of the ecological factors, which boost the spreading and the intensity of infestations. This research evaluated public costs related to the implementation of the Plan for A. albopictus control and Chikungunya and Dengue prevention set up in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy), where a Chikungunya epidemic outbreak occurred in 2007 with 247 people infected. The Plan started in 2008 by involving more than 280 municipalities and 4.3 million inhabitants within the region. The Plan’s activities mainly target the ecological conditions for the multiplication of infestation hotspots in urban areas to reduce the probability of rapid and uncontrolled disease spreading in case of outbreaks: this includes monitoring the infestation intensity, larvicide treatments in public and private areas, adulticide emergency treatments to isolate disease outbreaks, information in schools and to citizens, and compulsory good practices. The study accessed to data on the expenditure supported by all the public institutions involved in the implementation of the Plan. Main results include: evaluation of public costs related to some key indicators (inhabitants, extension of urban areas, type of treatments, etc.), analysis of differences in expenditure among municipalities and correlation between expenditure and socio-economic and environmental factors, as well as recommendations to improve the Plan’s economic efficiency and management.
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Conference: 3rd GRF One Health Summit 2015
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