Atopic Diseases – An Increasingly Important Issue of One Health?
aha! Swiss Allergy Centre, Switzerland
Atopic diseases like allergies, asthma and atopic eczema are major health problems in most industrialised countries. In Switzerland, around 35 percent of the population are sensitized to allergens, mainly aeroallergens like proteins from pollen, house dust mite dander, moulds or animal saliva. A fourth of the Swiss population suffer from clinically manifest allergic symptoms which are closely correlated to medication use, emergency visits and prescription of medical therapies.
There are several hypotheses for the increase in prevalence of atopic diseases over the last decades. Genetic susceptibility, decreased stimulation of the immune system («hygiene hypothesis»), as well as air pollution, climate changes and Western lifestyle are important influencing factors on the incidence of affected people.
With regard to these complex interactions influencing the prevalence of atopic diseases, this major public health issue must be focussed. Neither the causes nor the discussed solutions are monocausal. Public health awareness and close partnerships between multidisciplinary experts, supported by up to date communication management technologies are needed to improve the situation of people suffering from allergies.
aha! Swiss Allergy Centre offers patient education programs for anaphylaxis or atopic eczema for parents as well as holiday camps for children with interdisciplinary teams regarding to professional background. Before and/or after the programs, parents were asked to fill out a questionnaire. The results showed an improved feeling of safety for parents and more self-confident behaviour of children. These positive conclusions support the importance of individual empowerment in relation to an interdisciplinary approach of therapy of atopic diseases.
The Importance of Culture in a Health Emergency: International Medical Corps' Experience from the Ebola Response
International Medical Corps
International Medical Corps began responding to the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) crisis in West Africa in the summer of 2014. This poster will examine how International Medical Corps responded to the EVD outbreak and addressed cultural challenges in prevention, treatment and reintegration of individuals into communities within Liberia. International Medical Corps staff incorporated behavior change communication strategies and information on cultural practices to effectively reach populations affected by Ebola.
Contrasting Patterns of Hot Spell Effects on Morbidity and Mortality for Cardiovascular Diseases in the Czech Republic
1Institute of Atmospheric Physics CAS, Czech Republic; 2Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; 3National Institute of Public Health, Prague, Czech Republic
The study examines effects of hot spells on cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality in the population of the Czech Republic, with emphasis on differences between ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CD) and between morbidity and mortality. Daily data on CVD morbidity (hospital admissions) and mortality over 1994–2009 were obtained from national hospitalization and mortality registers and standardized to account for long-term changes as well as seasonal and weekly cycles. Hot spells were defined as periods of at least two consecutive days with average daily air temperature anomalies above the 95% quantile during June to August. Relative deviations of mortality and morbidity from the baseline were evaluated.
Hot spells were associated with excess mortality for all examined cardiovascular causes (CVD, IHD and CD). The increases were more pronounced for CD than IHD mortality in most population groups, mainly in males. In the younger population (0–64 years), however, significant excess mortality was observed for IHD while there was no excess mortality for CD. A short-term displacement effect was found to be much larger for mortality due to CD than IHD. Excess CVD mortality was not accompanied by increases in hospital admissions and below-expected-levels of morbidity prevailed during hot spells, particularly for IHD in the elderly. This suggests that out-of-hospital deaths represent a major part of excess CVD mortality during heat and that for in-hospital excess deaths CVD is a masked comorbid condition rather than the primary diagnosis responsible for hospitalization.
Seroprevalence of Taenia Solium-Cysticercosis among Humans Living in Pig Farming Settlements of Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria
1Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria; 2Biological sciences, University of Kwazulu Natal, Westville, Durban, South AFrica; 3Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaaduna, Nigeria.
Taenia solium cysticercosis is considered an emerging parasitic zoonosis of global importance due to its impact on both agriculture and public health in developing countries. Epidemiological information on human cysticercosis is limited in Nigeria. This study was therefore conducted to determine the prevalence of human cysticercosis in selected areas of Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria, where smallholder pig farming is embraced as a source of living. A cross sectional survey was conducted in Kaduna South and Chikun Local Government Areas of Kaduna metropolis which are widely involved in backyard pig farming and pork consumption. A total of 300 human sera were collected and tested for the presence of IgG antibodies to T. solium using an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ab-ELISA) technique. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to identify socio-demographic and risk factors in the population. A total of 43 sera tested positive to IgG antibodies giving a cysticercosis prevalence of 14.3%. Bivariate analysis revealed that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between seroprevalence and age, gender, occupation, and location. Method of pork preparation and history of epilepsy, were however found to be associated with seropositivity (p< 0.05) and epileptics in the study were two times more likely to be seropositive than non epileptics (OR= 2.2, 95% CI= 1.023-3.580, p= 0.04). A large proportion (74.0%) of the population had very poor knowledge and understanding of cysticercosis, and knowledge of human cysticercosis was strongly associated (p< 0.01) with method of pork preparation (p=0.001) and occupation (p=0.007). This survey reports prevalence of human cysticercosis in southern parts of Kaduna metropolis; there is therefore need for further studies on impact of disease burden in the area, and in Kaduna State in general.
A New One Health Training –Adressing the Needs of Preventive Medicine Doctors in Vietnam
1Hanoi Medical University, Vietnam; 2Tufts University; 3USAID
Although communicable diseases have shown a downward trend in Vietnam in past decades, infectious diseases continue to remain a major public health concern, with new epidemics and outbreaks of new and re-emerging infectious diseases. Doctors thus need to be equipped not only with knowledge, but also the skills to deal with such diseases in a continuously changing society. Recognizing the needs, Hanoi Medical University has taken the lead in developing a training curriculum and training program in One Health (OH) for Preventive Medicine (PM) students in all medical universities in Vietnam.
A multidisciplinary team from selected medical universities, Public Health and Agriculture Universities were involved in the curriculum development process. A program of training modules with 3 credits for 6th year PM doctor students in Vietnam was developed based on the OH core competencies and a OH modular curriculum designed by the South East Asia One Health University Network.
The course using participatory approach teaching skill will be used for future PM practitioners in order to help them to understand the basic concepts of OH, human health, animal health and ecohealth, explain the relevance of OH to Preventive Medicine, identify some core health problems related to OH and have ability to propose transdisciplinary solutions to solve the disease problems in Vietnam.
One Health Training Curriculum for Preventive Medicine Doctors is highly relevant for future PM practitioners, addressing the needs of One Health workforces in Vietnam, thus will strengthen the health workers’ capacities in diseases prevention and control.
One World-One Health and neglected zoonotic disease: Elimination, emergence and emergency in Uganda
University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
This paper traces the emergence and tensions of an internationally constructed and framed One World- One Health (OWOH) approach to control and attempt to eliminate African Trypanosomiasis in Uganda. In many respects Trypanosomiasis is a disease that an OWOH approach is perfectly designed to treat, requiring an integrated approach built on effective surveillance in animals and humans, quick diagnosis and targeting of the vector. The reality appears to be that the translation of global notions of OWOH down to national and district levels generates problems, primarily due to interactions between: a) in- ternational, external actors not engaging with the Ugandan state; b) actors setting up structures and activities parallel to those of the state; c) actors deciding when emergencies begin and end without consultation; d) weak Ugandan state capacity to coordinate its own integrated response to disease; e) limited collaboration between core Ugandan planning activities and a weak, increasingly devolved dis- trict health system. These interrelated dynamics result in the global, international interventionalist mode of OWOH undermining the Coordinating Office for Control of Trypanosomiasis in Uganda (COCTU), the body within the Ugandan state mandated expressly with managing a sustainable One Health response to trypanosomiasis outbreaks in Uganda. This does two things, firstly it suggests we need a more grounded, national perspective of OWOH, where states and health systems are acknowledged and engaged with by international actors and initiatives. Secondly, it suggests that more support needs to be given to core coordinating capacity in resource-poor contexts. Supporting national coordinating bodies, focused around One Health, and ensuring that external actors engage with and through those bodies can help develop a sustained, effective OWOH presence in resource-poor countries, where after all most zoonotic disease burden remains.
Extremely Low Exclusive Breast Feeding (EBF) Rate among the Syrian Refugee Communities in Jordan
Medair has been implementing nutrition programs in Syrian urban refugee communities in Jordan since July of 2013 by offering nutrition screening and promoting Infant and Young Child Feeding practices (IYCF) as well as training on management of acute malnutrition for children under 5 and pregnant and lactating women. As of April 8, a total of 31,485 refugee households have been reached by the Medair nutrition programme covering about 35% of the estimated number of refugees in urban areas outside of camps. In April of 2014, a household survey was conducted to estimate exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rates among those households reached by Medair with IYCF messages. 990 out of 31,485 households were selected by systematic random sampling for a telephone survey. Among those sampled, 12.9%(128 households) had children less than 6 months of age; 24.2±7.7% of these reported practicing exclusive breastfeeding within the previous 24 hours. This value is much lower than levels of EBF reported in Syria prior to the crisis (42.6%) despite effective IYCF promotion activity reflected by the fact that 71.3% (±6.4%) of lactating mothers surveyed were able to state more than two benefits of EBF covered. Considering EBF is one of the most effective way to save the lives of young children, this deterioration in EBF among refugees placing young children at an increased risk of death should serve as a warning to the humanitarian community that measures to improve EBF is needed immediately. Additionally the survey implies other interventions are needed to address the other potential obstacles to EBF practices such as cultural and social barriers. Group sessions to monitor the barriers and promoters of IYCF as well as developing a self-supporting system among caregivers influencing the social and cultural aspects of EBF may be helpful to facilitate dissemination of lessons learned among the refugee communities
Noise-induced Hearing Loss Among Quarry Workers in Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand
1School of Occupational Health and Safety, Institute of Medicine, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima,Thailand; 2School of Environmental Health, Institute of Medicine, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand; 3SilaSakol Pattana Co. Ltd, Pak Chong, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand
Noise is one of the most important occupation and environmental hazard, causing hearing loss, annoyance, sleep disturbance, fatigue, and hypertension. Quarry workers have a high risk of hearing loss due to excessive noise levels in the workplace environment. The purposes of this study were to evaluate noise exposure and its effects on the hearing ability of exposed workers in quarry workers. Noise exposure among quarry workers was measured by using a sound level meter in the workplace areas. There were four sampling points in the quarry operation areas for monitoring noises using a sound level meter. The results showed that the average noise levels at quarry point (near drilling area) was 87.7 dB(A) Leq that exceeded the Thailand occupational health safety and environment standards at 85 dB (A) for eight working hours. The other were 77.7 dB(A) Leq at resting point while hydraulic rock drill was working, 76.2 dB(A) Leq at resting point while backhoe was working and 73.7 dB(A) Leq at quarry point (far from drilling area). The hearing impairment among 28 quarry and related work workers was evaluated by audiometer. The audiometric data revealed that there were 71.43 % of all noise exposure workers suffered from hearing loss. The two first order of worker groups who suffered from hearing loss are workers in drilling work (28.57%) and maintenance workers (14.29%). Although this industry already has the criteria for a selection and use of hearing protection devices and a periodic audiometric evaluation program for workers, less number of workers used the hearing protective devices. Therefore, the hearing conservation program including training and encouragement workers for using the hearing protective devices are still needs to be promoted. Moreover engineering and administrative controls such as using sound absorption materials, modifying work rotation system should be conducted.
A Street Conducive To All Ages
1Malaysian Medical Association; 2Institute for Medical Research, Malaysia; 3KPJ Healthcare University College Nilai, Malaysia
This one-year study aims to make Jalan Pahang in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia conducive to all ages. This historical locality has undergone tremendous developmental processes since independence in 1958 and today, there are many commercial centres and condominiums. This street is within the strategic zone of the Kuala Lumpur city centre and is part of the KL Structure Plan 2020. While the infrastructure is being built, the necessary maintenance and softer components appear to be side-lined in that the street is unsafe, unaesthetic, unappealing and unhealthy from the daily user and for the older or physically-challenged individual.
The aims incorporate the World Health Organization Healthy City model based on: health-supportive environment; good quality of life; basic sanitation and hygiene needs; and access to health care.
The methodology involved a risk assessment approach through a questionnaire survey on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of 300 individuals from among the local community. The parameters looked at safety and security concerns, smoke-free, clean and green environment, and the aesthetic aspects of the street.
The outcome produced evidence to be presented to the local authority for them to work on deliverables such as to install adequate facilities such as streetlights, railings, ramps, benches, CCTVs, escalators for the overhead pedestrian bridge, lifts; wash-basins and toilets near the market-place; green and handicap-disabled buses to ply the route; notices to declare the areas in front of the hospitals, institutes and hotel to be smoke-free zones; ample waste disposal facilities; greening of the environment; and increase in enforcement with police patrolling the street.
This study will benefit the local community, enhance the civic-conscious mindset of the public, and reduce the incidence of snatch-thefts. There will be an atmosphere of helpfulness in that the community will communicate in a friendly manner and a well-cultured society will slowly but surely emerge.
A One Health Approach for Studying on Emerging Infectious Diseases, in Guangdong
Sen Yat-sen University
Recently, the emerging infectious diseases, such as SARS, H5N1, H7N9, H1H1 and dengue fever, occurred in China, and most of these diseases first emerged in Guangdong Province, where is located at the southeast of China and was the first province opened to the world in 1978. Guangzhou is the capital of Guangdong Province. The city is the financial, industrial, transportation and trade center of South China, and has large demographic exchange coupled with business, tourism and labor service. The following examples demonstrate this situation. Firstly, in November 2002, the first cases of SARS were retrospectively identified in Guangdong Province. Then the infection spread rapidly within Guangdong Province and to other provinces and municipalities of China, which led to the largest local SARS epidemic of the world. The disease also spread rapidly from Hong Kong to other areas of world, up to 29 countries and regions on five continents. It is reported that 5327 cases with 349 deaths occurred in mainland China during the 2003 worldwide SARS epidemic. SARS had significantly negative impacts on China’s economy. It is estimated that SARS epidemic resulted in a total loss of US$25.3 billion to China’s economy and a 1-2%drop in the growth rate of China’s gross domestic product(GDP) in 2003. One Health is an emerging concept aims to establish collaborations, and to cut across the boundaries of human, animal and environmental health, then achieve harmonized approaches for disease detection and prevention. One Health approach has great potential for reducing threats to public health from emerging infectious diseases.
A One Health Approach for Studying on Emerging Infectious Diseases, in Guangdong
LU, JiaHai (Sen Yat-sen University);
Recently, the emerging infectious diseases, such as SARS, H5N1, H7N9, H1H1 and dengue fever, occurred in China, and most of these diseases first emerged in Guangdong Province, where is located at the southeast of China and was the first province opened to the world in 1978. Guangzhou is the capital of Guangdong Province. The city is the financial, industrial, transportation and trade center of South China, and has large demographic exchange coupled with business, tourism and labor service. Guangzhou has a population of 13 million. Among the population, there are many national and international migrants, such as African and South Asian communities and tourists from South and Southeast Asia. Guangzhou has a subtropical monsoon climate with humid and hot summer, dry, mild and sunny winter. The annual accumulate precipitation is 1736 mm, and the annual mean temperature is 22℃. Because of the particular location and climate model, Guangdong is vulnerable to many emergency and re-emergence of epidemic-prone infectious diseases, which link to the significant impact on national and international economies. The following examples demonstrate this situation. Firstly, in November 2002, the first cases of SARS were retrospectively identified in Guangdong Province. Then the infection spread rapidly within Guangdong Province and to other provinces and municipalities of China, which led to the largest local SARS epidemic of the world. The disease also spread rapidly from Hong Kong to other areas of world, up to 29 countries and regions on five continents. It is reported that 5327 cases with 349 deaths occurred in mainland China during the 2003 worldwide SARS epidemic. SARS had significantly negative impacts on China’s economy. It is estimated that SARS epidemic resulted in a total loss of US$25.3 billion to China’s economy and a 1-2%drop in the growth rate of China’s gross domestic product(GDP) in 2003. Secondly, Guangdong Province is one of the sites of influenza origin. In early spring of 1996, several H5N1 outbreaks occurred in farmed geese at Sanshui, a small town of Guangdong Province. During 2003-2004, nine avian influenza outbreaks took place in Guangdong Province. But no human case was reported. The first H7N9 human case in south of China was confirmed in Guangdong Province on August 2013. H7N9 posed potentially serious health challenges for Chinese society. Thirdly, there was no dengue fever case in China until an outbreak in Guangdong Province in 1978 where Aedes albopictus and Aegypti existed. In recent years, Guangdong Province has had the highest incidence of dengue in China with cases reported every year since 1997, especially in 2014, a several dengue fever outbreaks occurred in Guangdong which poses a substantial socioeconomic burden, and it is reported that 45171 cases in Guangdong Province, among which 37340 cases in Guangzhou. It aroused wide public concerned in China. One Health is an emerging concept aims to establish collaborations, and to cut across the boundaries of human, animal and environmental health, then achieve harmonized approaches for disease detection and prevention. On November 22nd to 23rd , 2014, the first Chinese households International Symposium for One Health Research was hold in Guangdong, the host is school of public health, Sun Yat-Sen University, and Professor Jiahai Lu is the Initiator of One Health in China. Besides, One Health approach is popular among government organization, research institutes, medicine and veterinary. Therefore, One Health approach has great potential for reducing threats to public health from emerging infectious diseases.
Impact of Livestock Intensification on Community Health in Vietnam
1National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Vietnam; 2Institut Pasteur, Paris
The frenzied economic development of South East Asia has brought damaging changes to ecosystems that are only beginning to become evident. It is essential that these changes are studied, measured and documented so that strategies can be devised to minimize health risks for residentpopulations caught up in this rapid expansion.
The core of the ECOMORE project is to better understand the anthropogenic and ecological changes responsible for the emergence of infectious diseases and to measure the health risks for local communities. It is a one health project being implemented in four South East Asian countries: Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Vietnam. In each the Institut Pasteur has linked with the appropriate national health authority to design an anthropogenic project devised by that country.
In 2008 the government of Vietnam introduced a twelve year livestock development strategy which promotes intensification of the sector to match the increase in demand for livestock products but the potential health impacts had not been studied and are only now beginning to be unearthed by the ECOMORE project.
In Vietnam ECOMORE is describing health events and diseases in human and animal populations living in areas with intensive livestock farming by comparing populations that have adopted the new strategy with those that are continuing with the traditional system. The survey that forms the basis of the research is coupled with two cross-sectional studies being implemented six months apart in humans, animals and in the environment. The environmental survey in 60 gardens to assess contamination by E.Coli of natural fertilizer, irrigation water and vegetables uses an innovative technique of biological markers to identify the origin of the pollution. Specimens are collected in 1,000 people and 70 pig and poultry farms in each village to detect the circulation of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Leptospirosis, Hepatitis E and Avian Influenza.
Dust Mitigation Measures and Health Surveillance in Stone Crushing Plant
1Suranaree University of Technology, Thailand; 2Sila Sakol Pattana Co. Ltd, Pak Chong, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand
One of the most common particles in air pollution from processes of stone crushing plant is particle that size less than 10 micrometers (PM10). The size of particle is directly potential cause of health problems. The objectives of this study are; to investigate the concentration of ambient total suspended particulate (TSP) and PM10 at sensitive areas around the site from EIA, to investigate dust mitigation measures and to observe health impacts on worker. TSP and PM10 samples were collected from four sites of sensitive areas during the rainy season, August to September and during the winter, January to March (2005-2013) using high volume air samplers. We found that concentration levels of TSP in the rainy season and the winter varied from 20 - 252 and 35.8 - 302 μg/m3, respectively. Whilst levels of PM10 in the rainy season and the winter varied from 3-66 and 3-117 μg/m3, respectively. The results showed that all samples of 24-hour average concentrations of TSP and PM10 lower than Thailand’s ambient air quality standards. In dust mitigation we measured by using hood for screening and crusher, water spray system, covered conveyor belts and plantation around the site. Moreover, collected dust from bag filter was brought to improve soil quality in increasing cassava productivity and old conveyor was used for covering dust emission sources. Health effects on 154 workers were also observed through pulmonary function test such as, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and a ratio of FEV1 to FVC, and chest X-ray examination. Eight workers who had pulmonary function with low FVC were recommended to exercise regularly whereas a worker abnormal chest X-ray was further checked with doctor. Taken together, continuous improvement of dust mitigation measures and health surveillance would be good practice for other plants in the future.
There is a high incidence of chronic respiratory inflammatory disease triggered by a hereditary predisposition, which generates in patients complicated conditions affecting the airways.
Based research in patients, using a simple, reliable, reproducible and safe study, statistics as well as a model of integrated management of this condition, frequently attended on the services of otolaryngology in Mexico in complicated conditions, emphasizes the need to increase global training of physicians in the care of this pathological condition and need to control pollution sources, and analysis as an additional negative phenomenon to mundial catastrophes.
We should optimize orientation to general population making emphasis on the hygienic and nutritional guidance.
It is proposed reflect on the nature of health systems worldwide, and demand political changes with the system to approach under an accessible universal health care system, in a model supported by economical simplified test, effective and safe with complementary management including oral sublingual immunotherapy.
Prevalence and Etiology of Microcytosis in Sickle Cell Anemia Patients
King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health sciences, Saudi Arabia
Sickle cell disease, a common condition in Saudi Arabia, can have many complications & devastating outcomes. Some conditions can co-exist with this disease that can add more problems to the patient’s health. In this study we will be looking for the presence of some of these conditions. We will be checking for the prevalence of microcytosis & some of it's causes like iron deficiency anemia & alpha or beta thalassemias.
One Welfare - Aligning Animal Welfare And The Human Condition
1Manitoba Health and Healthy Living and Seniors, Canada; 2Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Development
The One Welfare (OW) concept builds on the international One World One Health Expert Consultation held in Winnipeg in 2009. OW takes the next step recognizing the connection that exists between the welfare of animals and the humans that they coexist with. This will expand previous One health accomplishments into the OW sphere, engaging issues such as animal welfare and related disparities of human health.
OW is based on the core pillars of prevention, detection and response and focuses on the problem of hoarding. These pillars each house additional jurisdictional sections that all should be considered when developing policy for each pillar. The sectors for prevention include government standards and codes of practice, industry proactive interest, professional association interest and ongoing academic research; for detection – government leadership in surveillance, social networks and support systems, public education and professional reporting systems; for response – animal welfare enforcement regulations, clinical mental health management capacity, inter-jurisdictional collaborative policy and multisource funding. Underlying all these pillars are the cultural considerations that should be included in different settings. Each pillar would therefore engage in multiple stakeholders and without a universal framework, this leads to inefficiencies and potential failures in outcomes. OW intends to fully develop and describe this framework for a cohesive policy to manage the emerging burden of rural and urban hoarding.
This poster will describe the OW framework and concept as it relates to hoarding and other complex welfare situations. This will offer additional opportunity, in conjunction with the conference presentation, to engage in conversation and debate about this issue and increase awareness of the options for developing successful policy. We invite the international community to engage in this initiative through engagement in the presentation, with representatives at the poster and through attendance at the upcoming conference.