Risk of Mosquito-Borne Diseases in Relation to Rubber Plantation Development in South-East Asia
1Institut Pasteur du Laos, Lao People's Democratic Republic; 2Durham University, Stockton Rd, Durham, United Kingdom
South-East Asia is experiencing unprecedented economic growth that is transforming land-use, a major driver of emerging infectious diseases. The expansion of rubber plantations is one of the leading causes of land-use change. Here we assessed the exposure risk of rubber workers to mosquito-borne diseases with a case-study in Laos. We compared the mosquito diversity and density in the mature rubber plantations (i.e. tapped for latex) with immature rubber plantation, secondary forests and villages. Furthermore, the behavior of rubber workers was related to the host seeking behavior of vector mosquitoes. Molecular analysis is currently conducted on Aedes species for viral detection.
We used the ‘human-baited double net’ trap, which protects participants from mosquito bites, for collecting host seeking mosquitoes. In 2013 the four habitats were sampled every hour for two days and two nights in three study areas every month from July to November. In 2014 this was done every two months from January to July.
A total of 24,917 mosquitoes were collected during our study. In the mature rubber plantation 3,649 mosquitoes (68 different species) were collected, including vectors of malaria, dengue, chikungunya and Japanese encephalitis. Statistical results and molecular analysis are currently in process.
A major concern highlighted by our preliminary results, is that the schedule of the rubber workers increases the exposure risk to vector mosquitoes. The workers may be at considerable risk of dengue transmission when collecting latex during the day and of malaria when tapping for latex at night. Additionally the risk of dengue and malaria is further increased by the high numbers of seasonal workers in the industry that can spread diseases (including artemisinin-resistant malaria strains) by travelling to or from disease-endemic areas. Priority should be on improving access to effective health care and providing plantation workers with protection from biting mosquitoes.
Snoozes Risk Assessment and Prevention in Georgia
Association for Farmers Rights Defense, AFRD, Georgia
As the world population grows, particularly in urban areas, and incomes increase, diets and consumption patterns change, and demand for food and non-food agricultural products expand. In Georgia Agriculture has to face the progressive erosion of the natural resource base it depends on, in addition to the threats that originate from climate change. The desired impact on the Risk assessment in food security and nutrition and sustainable development can only be achieved if the actors involved are accountable for their actions and for the impact they have on the livelihoods of others and on the environment. It is common knowledge in climate change particularly affects developing countries like Georgia, but its effects on health, nature and environment are still very hard to predict. In a joint effort to bridge this gap, we worked on research project to assist risk management and health decision-makers in allocating resources and implementing preventative measures ahead of disease epidemics. The Projects was focused on risk management and disease control in Animals, aiming giving to decision-makers the necessary recommendations to deploy intervention methods and help prevent large-scale spread of zoonotic diseases and different pollutants affecting food and feed for human ad animals. The overall objective of our research project was to combine climate models, weather-dependent infection-control data for key diseases, and local knowledge of Farmers about population behavior, disease control and transmission patterns. We learned by these researches that there was a clear lack of use of climate-model data sets for impact studies, assessments and evaluations. We investigate the conditions of the animals diseases like: brucellosis, bovine tuberculosis, echinococcosis, leishmaniosis, listerias and zoonotic trypanosomes. These diseases pose a direct risk to human health’s in Georgia, and can also have a serious impact on livestock productivity – and hence the livelihoods of Farmers and their families.
Vaccination Against Avian Influenza: What Has Changed and What Should Be Changed
Ceva Animal Health, France
Avian Influenza has changed dramatically in the last few years, and now poses a major threat not only to our health but the entire global economy. The disease is now induced by more types of viruses and is present in more countries than ever before. The more recent viruses are better “adapted” to wild waterfowl populations and can be carried over much longer distances. The recent epizootics that have occurred in the USA and Europe do illustrate this. This changes the way in which the disease is spread and must also change our approach to controlling it. The risk is much higher than ever and this is the right time to forget old dogmas and adapt to this new situation.
A new vector vaccine has been developed that overcomes most of the previous objections to using vaccination. Many experiments have been conducted that demonstrate its capacity to protect against a wide variety of different H5 type HPAIVs, breakthrough the presence of MDA’s and be used reliably in the hatchery. Vaccinated birds can be clearly identified as part of a DIVA monitoring strategy to eradicate the disease, an important development from the classical vaccines used until now. Because of this new rHVT-HA5 vaccine, vaccination can no longer be neglected but needs to be considered as an essential part of a One Health strategy to protect the poultry industry and wider communities against potentially enormous clinical and economic losses.
More funds should be dedicated to the research of new AI vaccines. We cannot continue to dedicate so much resource to understanding the rain and the ways to control it. It is now time to also work more intensively on umbrellas.
Preparation of Hearing Conservation Program for Stone Crushing Industry
1School of Occupational Health and Safety, Institute of Medicine, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand; 2School of Environmental Health, Institute of Medicine, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand; 3SilaSakol Pattana Co. Ltd, Nakhon Ratchasima,Thailand
Exposure to high levels of excessive noise causes early noise-induced hearing loss. Most stone crushing industry workers could expose noise in their workplaces. This study aimed to evaluate noise exposure among stone crushing industry workers using personal noise dosimeters at the workers and sound level meter at the workplace areas. There were seven sampling points at the crushed stone operations for monitoring noise using a sound level meter. Also, workers in those operations were evaluated using personal noise dosimeters. The results revealed that the average noise levels were 96.1 - 96.3 dB (A)Leq at hopper area, 100.5 -105.7 dB (A)Leq at vibrating feeder and jaw crusher area, 87.7 - 95.0 dB (A)Leq at vibrating screen area. In addition, the time-weighted average (TWA) of the noise dosimeter for the workers in the operations were 70.0 -75.3 dB (A) for hopper workers, 88.2 - 95.0 dB (A) for vibrating feeder and jaw crusher workers, and 76.1 – 79.3 dB (A) for a vibrating screen worker. These indicated that the noise exposure in the vibrating feeder and jaw crusher areas exceeded the Thailand occupational health safety and environment standards at 90 dB (A) for eight working hours. This industry has already applied the selection and use of hearing protection devices and periodic audiometric evaluation for the workers. Therefore, the hearing conservation program including engineering and administrative controls such as using sound absorption materials, modifying work rotation system should be conducted in the vibrating feeder and jaw crusher area
The Study of Fatigue Compared Between Touch Screen and Keypad Mobile Phones When Social Networking
Suranaree University of Technology, Thailand
The data from Economic newspaper No. 17 on June 20, 2012 that show 6.2 billion mobile user and there will be 3G network covers 85% of the worldwide. The teenagers they use mobile phone for social networking and many purpose, otherwise the data from Journal of Medicine in Thailand (Volume 337) said that if they use mobile phone are frequent and long time that may be cause of eye fatigue, thumb, wrist inflammation, shoulder and neck pain. This aims of study to investigate and survey fatigue from use of social network between touch screen and keypad mobile phone with Public Health student Suranaree University of Technology total 614 person.
This study is a Quasi experiment the wrist, fingers strength and eye strain before and after use social network between keypad and touch screen mobile phone with 614 person. The researcher screen sample by questionnaire and and control illumination 600 Lux. They test eye strain by Critical Fusion Frequency and wrist and fingers strength test by Grip Strength Dynamometer before and after use mobile phone with social network continue 2 hour. The data were analyzed by SPSS.
The result compared between touch screen and keypad mobile phones fatigue. The analyzed data showed that eye strain increased with significant P-Value 0.05. The hand strength and the figure pressure decreases with significance P-Value 0.05. Moreover the compared result of the hand and the finger strength showed that the results with keypad mobile phone are increase more than touch screen mobile phone with significant at the P-Value 0.05.
This research focus to study social network by mobile phone fatigue with 3 parameter such as eye strain, hand strength and fingers pressure test and next research should be consider other parameter.