Monitoring of Emergency Water Factors and Anthropogenous Loading of Industrial Facilities on Quality of a Waterway of Transboundary Rivers
Tajik National University, Tajikistan
Tajikistan is a mountainous country that one posed in an interval of altitudes from 300 up to 7000 m above the sea level, cities, settlements and kishlak (villages) are located in valleys of the rivers, which anthropogenesis loading on superficial reaches maximum. According to results of the water control analyses during storm rains, there is a bacterial pollution of the rivers prick an index can reach numerous amounts of intestine sticks in 1 liter of water (Varzob River – 3800 intestine sticks in 1 liter of water). The basic importance of a waterway of infection transfer is especially evident at study of dynamic of disease by a typhoid, which always characterized as very high level. The underground waters take appreciable place in supplement of the population of Tajikistan by potable water. Water as dynamical components of the ecosystems possesses ability promptly to transfer various pollution and infectious diseases on greater territories. However, it concerns to superficial waters but not exception is also underground waters. First, it caused by that superficial and underground waters constantly are in dynamic interaction and takes thus a place penetration and diffusion of pollution to the reservoirs of underground waters. Earlier it was observed that significant seasonal change of concentration of nitrates in underground waters: during the droughty periods concentration of nitrates did not exceed unit and during rains reached 18 mg/dm3. Tajikistan is the agrarian country and basic agricultural production is cotton. For receiver of the good harvest many farmers breaking the established norms apply enough lots mineral fertilizers and pesticides. It is necessary to note that the majority of sources of mass water delivery of rural population are near to the irrigated grounds. At rains the mineral fertilizers and pesticides hit to the underground water reservoirs
Water Public Health, Perceptions, and Disease Mitigation Strategies in Rural Vietnam.
University of Calgary, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Canada
Integrated management of livestock species, aquaculture, and crops has been a part of rural Vietnam for centuries and is formally promoted by the Ministry of Agriculture. However, management methods may be contributing to the emergence of zoonotic diseases of recent concern (e.g., avian influenza). This suggests a need for change in public health awareness and farm management.
We used farm visits, questionnaires, focus groups, and analysis of water samples to investigate the public health knowledge, livestock management, and association with presence of coliform bacteria on 600 small scale integrated farms in north (Thai Binh) and south (An Giang) Vietnam in 2013. Water samples were analyzed in national government laboratories for E. coli as an indicator organism for fecal contamination of water using culture and tryptose broth methods. Questionnaire and focus group data were analyzed using summary statistics, probit regression, and clustering techniques for qualitative data.
More than 80% (p<.01) of drinking and household water samples in the sampling frame tested positive for unsafe levels of E. coli (ranging from 0 to 500 cfu/ 100ml (mean=13.5, s.d.=39.6). Farmers were well aware (>90%) that avian influenza or parasites could spread from livestock via water but were not well aware that bacteria could spread via water. Most farmers (>70%) indicated they filter and/or boil their drinking water, although other basic mitigation strategies such hand washing or preventing mixing of livestock was not common.
The presence of E. coli in drinking water was unacceptably high in most households we sampled. Although farmers revealed some intuitive knowledge of public health, farm management procedures such as incomplete separation of livestock are likely to contribute to cross-contamination of drinking and household water. Basic public health training is recommended to help farmers appreciate the benefits of simple mitigation strategies.
Water Management in Singapore’s Bishan Ang-Mo Kio Park – Resilience and Liveability through Blue-Green and Social Infrastructure
1Rambøll; 2Rambøll; 3The Tree
We need to find solutions to environmental crises like climate change and flooding, especially within cities and urban regions. Can we create living systems that filter, clean and regulate water, balance temperature, produce good air, save natural resources, increase biodiversity and at the same time meet the need for places where people stay healthy and enjoy life?
Since 1981 we research and create such resilient shared spaces. One of our key findings was that this needs to be a win-win situation for people and nature. As numerous flood events proved, water will take back the space it needs. Why should we not consider this space already when we plan our settlements? But we have to tell the story of water playfully and create beauty in order to have the installation of blue-green infrastructure become an interdisciplinary topic and to be accepted by people. Today, designers and engineers have to get local residents, decision-makers and other stakeholders on board early to foster acceptance and a common approach for best solutions. Highest aesthetics and good technical performance work best within the local cultural context.
We will discuss international examples of blue-green infrastructure where good governance, intelligent engineering and high design performance work hand in hand to enhance resilience and liveability.
The case will be made primarily by Singapore’s recently built Bishan Ang-Mo Kio Park and also touch on other cases like Cloudburst in Copenhagen, an innovative way to adapt urban open spaces like streets and plazas for heavy storm water events and by that prevent flooding.
Water is as dynamic as our societies. Wherever possible, hydrology in urban development should not only be seen as a problem but as an opportunity for contemporary design and creativity to increase health and biodiversity and to create a liveable cityscape.
Conceptualising WASH System Resilience in the Context of Natural Hazards
1Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Stockholm Environment Institute, Bangkok, Thailand
The need to build the resilience of societies to multiple complex and interacting socio-economic and environmental risks is increasingly being acknowledged by donors, researchers, policymakers and practitioners. A multitude of resilience frameworks has recently been developed in the context of natural hazards, climate change, and sustainable development. These frameworks aim to identify and characterize elements of resilience at different scales (e.g., individual, community, city) and to provide entry points for decision-makers and practitioners for interventions aimed at building resilience. Most frameworks focus attention to either the community scale or the city scale.
The aim of this research is to enhance understanding of how resilience can be defined and conceptualised in the context of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) systems that are at risk from natural hazards (flood and drought). Particular attention is paid to the linkages between WASH system components and services, ecosystem management in the surrounding watershed, wider city planning processes, and the experience of the individual user. Insights on WASH system resilience will be derived from a systematic review of existing published resilience frameworks and empirical research conducted in six case studies (Durban, South Africa; Beira/Maputo, Mozambique; Cebu, Philippines; Yueyang City, China; Gorakhpur, India; Kristianstad, Sweden; and Cali, Colombia) under the project ’ Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Resilient Cities and Urban Areas Adapting to Extreme Waters’ (Wash & Rescue) funded by the Swedish Civil Contingency Agency (MSB) between 2011 and 2014. The outcome of this project will be a new resilience framework for WASH system resilience. The framework will provide WASH system managers with an improved understanding of WASH system dynamics; the vulnerabilities of its various components to natural hazards; the causes of potential system failures; and specific entry points for disaster management interventions aimed at strengthening the resilience of the WASH system.
Multisectorial Scheme Proposed for Resilience in Guatemala due to Disasters Caused by Water
San Carlos University of Guatemala, Guatemala
Guatemalan panorama due to disasters caused by water, instead of being dark, could be improved using the proposed scheme to work as a stage to perceive opportunities using the talent and national capacity, cultural and ethnic diversity to actively influence in the subject, through investment, transparent regulations, hazard recognition as key players changing, resource protection, power-sharing, strategic alliances, anticipation of risks that cannot be reduced.
Important is that a paradigm shift is generated: disaster to resilience. Instead of thinking, speaking, innovate and create solutions to reduce disaster; it is better to discuss, innovate and create alternatives or proposals to overcome post-disaster properly (because social, structural and environmental debt is still high), being able to be prepared, updated and versatile to the occurrence of various events in the future, making visible the risks with the ability to see beyond what is customary.
There are contexts, frameworks, laws and regulations, international experience, research methodologies to protect life when water becomes a hazard. However, there must be a synergy, active participation and multisectoral dynamic. Is the benefit will be greater if responsibilities and obligations are intended to each one according to their skills or whether institutions (public, private or individuals) interested in the subject work hard on their own to achieve the same goal?
It is logical and intelligent to consider that intervention and collaboration according to the capabilities, economic, intellectual and humanitarian efforts well distributed and used for the same purpose, create a powerful, fit and proper way to serve the population and its environment ensuring a secure development.
To Provide Millions Of Gallons Of Fresh Water To All Eco System In Sahara Desert Without Using Single Watt Of Energy.
Simple Ideas & Solutions, India
To multiply nature`s own system of evaporation of sea water by creating of “water vapor farm” above sea water and dew/fog collecting methods by creating dew farms in desert.
To design 3x3 feet cotton cloth hangings with rigid floating supports. To keep cloth hangings floating vertically on sea water with lower edge of cloth just dipping in water. Due to capillary action, water will rise in the cloth to 3 feet. Due to this
1) Increases air–sea water interaction.
2) Reduces cohesive force between water molecules creating thin film.
Wind will brush vertical cloth hangings and load water vapor in air to highest possible humidity. Each cloth hanging evaporates about 20 liters water/day.
Considering wind speed 15 kilometers/hour, in 8 hours the vapor will travel deep in desert. This will eliminate transportation cost.
During night, temperature drops to about +7°c in the desert. With higher relative humidity, air will offload about 27ml/m3 water as dew. This will eliminate condensation cost. Dew collectors will be put at strategic locations as per wind directions to maximize water extraction form air.
Most water will percolate in soil, some will again evaporate. Winds will carry these vapors further deep in desert. This dew–vapor hopping pattern will eventually increase water quantity in the whole desert eco-system, air, soil and watersheds. New aquifers, streams, rivers will form, present one will be replenished. These water bodies will store naturally desalinated water eliminating storage cost.
Negligible capital cost and no manmade energy is required to run whole system.