Improving Community Health through Mobilizing Formal Systems and Informal Networks: A Social Organizational Approach
The University of Georgia, United States of America
Building communities from the inside out is a powerful, effective, and sustainable preventive strategy for enhancing community health, and for mobilizing diverse assets to address global challenges (Mancini & Bowen, 2013). These challenges include health disparities and under-served populations, natural disaster preparedness and recovery, and integration of immigrants in new environments. Each of these challenges pivots on health, broadly considered, and calls for multi-dimensional social action for their solutions. We present a social organizational theory of action and change (TAC) as a strategy for mobilizing community assets that accounts for vulnerabilities while elevating processes of resilience. The approach has been integrated with key global issues concerning first responders in harm’s way (Bowen, Martin, Mancini & Nelson, 2000), natural disasters (Keifer, et al, 2008), intimate partner violence in communities (Mancini, et al 2006), community gardens, violence against older adults (Roberto, et al, 2013), and community physical and mental health (Mancini, Arnold, Martin, & Bowen, 2014).
The global health example we use in this discussion are health conditions of diabetes, heart disease, and obesity, though, numerous other health situations of global significance could be used. The orientation is one of prevention, though equally applicable to intervention. There are four major framework elements (see Mancini & Bowen, 2013 for a full elaboration), the first centered on contexts of social and physical infrastructures (called community antecedents), the second focused on network structures, social capital and community capacity (called social organizational processes), the third on sense of community (called intermediate results), and the final element is individual/family/community results. We provide four global health real-life examples in the course of analyzing community situations through this theoretical lens. We conclude our discussion with implications for social action, including how to mobilize informal networks in communities through the actions of formal systems that support communities.
Opening the One Health Workforce Pipeline: Education and Research Define an Unprecedented One Health Undergraduate Degree Program
Berry College, United States of America
Building and sustaining a pipeline of scientists trained in One Health thinking and practice is a growing global priority, but to date has focused on graduate and professional education. To address the need for well-trained, effectively oriented students entering these fields, we have established the first undergraduate degree program in One Health Science (OHS) in the United States. Our B.S. curriculum comprises integrative OHS courses and research as a minor, with majors in either biology, animal science, or environmental science. Our strengths leverage our 100-square-kilometer campus – the largest outdoor academic laboratory in the U.S. – including an equine center, beef cattle operations, dairy, sheep/goat operations, fisheries lab, and wildlife management operations. Further assets include strong collaborations with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and several partner universities conducting research on our campus. Students engage with faculty and visiting scientists in One Health research, including among others: 1) zoonotic pathogen dispersal between wildlife, livestock, and humans by filth-feeding flies; 2) role of coprophagous insects in maintaining Cryptosporidium in wildlife and livestock habitats; 3) infection dynamics for sylvatic and peridomestic Trypanosoma cruzi transmission; 4) reducing congenital transmission of Chagas’ Disease through DNA vaccination; 5) Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) on Berry campus; 6) biophysical characterization of Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) retrovirus replication; 7) amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection in Georgia; 8) tick exposure on Berry campus and environs; 9) livestock feeds contamination by wildlife; 10) effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in finches frequenting bird feeders; 11) prevalence of arthropod-borne diseases among birders; 12) sentinel organism biosurveillance for zoonotic waterborne pathogens in North American and European rivers; 13) role of dung beetles in taeniasis/cysticercosis epidemiology in agricultural and sylvatic areas of Peru. We encourage other institutions to develop similar undergraduate programs as One Health awareness increases.
The TranSAge Project
1Malaysian Medical Association; 2Institute for Medical Research, Malaysia; 3KPJ Healthcare University College Nilai, Malaysia
This project aims to transform a street to encompass a society for all ages. Jalan Pahang is a vital street in Kuala Lumpur which is a centrally located and it connects facilities that provide essential services. This one-year integrative project employs a risk management tool which identifies features which may be incorporated into the developmental processes, such as: safety and security, smoke-free and a sanitised environment, green with aesthetic utilities to promote environmental health consciousness. It places health and environment high on the decision-makers’ agendas through local strategies for health promotion and protection which is sustainable, friendly to all ages and conducive to local weather conditions and involves community participation, empowerment, inter-sectoral partnerships, stakeholder involvement and equity of access. The methodology involves a situational analysis and sanitary survey which list the natural terrain, existing facilities and utilities; number and types of vehicles and pedestrians using the street; reports of snatch-thefts from the local police and reports of fire from the fire authorities; the number and characteristics of apparent jay-walkers; air and surface water pollution studies; study of litter and pests.
The bustling wet market with its maze of stalls offering the city's freshest, most diverse food selection is neither hygienic nor healthy. In addition, the plight of pedestrians facing numerous snatch-thefts, inhaling noxious vehicular smoke, erratic drivers is a nuisance for the young, the old and the sick. Waste disposal and vagabonds are unsavoury characteristics of the street. Industrious efforts should be set in place as a sustaining activity. Public health advocacy, health education and promotion of hygienic practices must be enhanced without threatening the livelihood of users. Law enforcement must be provided to make the street safer.
In tandem with infrastructure development, these parameters are addressed to make a city liveable and conducive to activities for daily living.
South East Asia One Health University Network(SEAOHUN) Agenda for Future and Present One Health Workforce
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
The emergence of SARS corona virus in 2003, H1N1 in 2009, Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) corona virus in Saudi Arabia and recently Ebola Virus epidemic are indicated that health workforce are have limited capacities to detect the early stage of spillover,amplification and spread of new disease threat.The early recognition of potential threat of the infectious diseases will allow the affected country to take preemptive steps to prevent it. Universities can contribute their expertise and facilities to train the future and present health workforce whom will have the required core competencies and technical skills to diagnose and prevent the epidemic.South East Asia One Health University Network (SEAOHUN) are established to employ the strengths of Universities to prepare the " One Health" workforce in core competencies and skill for preventing, controlling,detecting and responding to zoonotic diseases. Our One Health Workforce Themes are : Government engagement on workforce needs, translating needs to future workforce development, faculty development and In-service training. SEAOHUN consist of Universities from Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam , where faculties from various discipline expertise and stakeholders collaborating to conduct activities achieve our main objective to produce competence one health workforce.
The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) One Health Role in Resilience and Disaster Management
World Organization for Animal Health United States of America
Natural and man-made disasters require a multidisciplinary engagement to achieve optimal efficiency and effectiveness in planning, mitigation, response and recovery. The One Health framework is the concept that there is a nexus and inextricable link between human health, animal health and environmental health. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has an initiative to examine the current state of risk reduction and disaster management for animals in disasters and develop guidelines and standards with the goal of enhancing resilience and strengthening disaster management capacity within Member Countries. Recent events such as the global Influenza Pandemic, Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill, post conflict reconstruction, the Haiti earthquake with subsequent cholera outbreak, Japan’s earthquake/tsunami/radiological disaster and global warming highlight the need to bring all components of disaster management together in a cohesive response. Veterinarians and animal experts play a critical role in multiple aspects of disaster management and response. A survey of 53 European and Eurasian countries veterinary authorities and capabilities revealed that there current capacities to deal with animal related disasters, but significant gaps within Veterinary Services that can be partially addressed through OIE standards. By developing guidance and standards the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) enhances the integration of animal disaster management into broader resilience and disaster management and response networks, promotes the health and welfare of animals, safeguards human health, and helps Member Countries restore economic and societal conditions when a disaster strikes.
One Health and Resilience: A New Biological Modelling Framework
World Organization for Animal Health, United States of America
The United Nations Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA 2005-2015) outlined five priorities for building resilience and multiple authors have developed elements and characteristics of resilience. Biological systems provide an excellent new model for resilience demonstrating resilience characteristics and establishing a framework for capacity building planning and action. These characteristics include: unity of purpose, unity of effort, sensing capability, multiple protective layers, redundancy, resource prioritization and allocation, self- repairing, automatic and hierarchical responses, reserve capacity, agile learning, anticipatory capability, and adaptability. An example of one of these characteristics, resource prioritization and allocation, is seen in the body’s ability to shunt blood to core internal organs and restrict flow to arms and legs when exposed to hypothermic conditions. Similarly communities can utilize effective resource prioritization and allocation to direct resources to critical infrastructure and sustainment that provide for the highest community benefit. Applying these biological characteristics to resilience building and disaster response will enhance the capacity of the resilience program and insulate individuals and communities from disaster events.