The programme includes the IDRC Davos 2016 agenda of sessions, plenary sessions, special panels and workshops. Click on the session title for more details.

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Session 09: Getting Ready - Emergency Planning
Monday, 29/Aug/2016:
6:00pm - 7:30pm

Session Chair: David ALEXANDER, UCL Institute for Risk and Disaster Reduction
Room: Seehorn

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Development & Application of Ichi-Nichi-Mae Project for Disaster Awareness: If You Were Back One Day before the Disaster, What Would You Do?

Satoru NISHIKAWA1, Tomohisa SASHIDA2, Mikiko IKEGAMI3, Hajime KAGIYA4, Noriko SUZUKI1, Kazuyuki NAKAGAWA5

1Japan Center for Area Development Research, Japan; 2Tokio Marine & Nichido Risk Consulting Co. Ltd, Japan; 3Tokyo Young Women’s Christian Association, Japan; 4Atomi University, Japan; 5Jiji Press, Japan

Raising public awareness against disasters is one of the main pillars of disaster reduction policy in Japan. Numerous educational materials have been developed to raise public awareness on disasters. However it has been often the case that these materials are not seriously accepted by adults and have not lead to preventive action. To address this issue, we have developed a new program; ‘Ichi-Nichi-Mae (the Day before the Disaster Hit) Project’ for Disaster Awareness. This program interviews people who have been seriously affected by a major disaster, by posing the question ‘What would you do if you were back the day before the disaster?’, and edits the most impressive personal short stories which give clues for future preventive action. The interviews cover a wide variety of adults who experienced disasters, from housewives to small business owners and large enterprise employees, male and female, young and old. They will tell their regrets, reflections, sincere lessons learnt, and how they would prepare better for a safer future. Wide varieties of disasters, typhoons, floods, tornadoes, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, snowfall, etc. are covered. These interviews are compiled as short stories 200 to 600 words length and added indicative illustrations. Approximately 900 stories are complied to date. These stories have been used for disaster awareness seminars and have proven to be effective, since the real stories make participants feel that it may happen to them. The wide variety of the interviewees enable the participants of such seminars to find stories which they feel quite similar to their current lifestyle. The methodology of this project is published on the Cabinet Office Disaster Management website and is voluntarily applied by various communities. This methodology is applied for interviewing mayors of disaster affected municipalities and have proven to be effective for changing mindsets of inexperienced mayors.

Preventing and Managing Large-Scale Disasters in Swiss Cities

Linda MADUZ, Florian ROTH, Tim PRIOR

ETH Zürich, Switzerland

Although Switzerland’s civil protection system is recognized as very efficient, its exposure to unexpected and extreme events is largely untested. Urban areas, where population and infrastructure are concentrated, are considered to be especially vulnerable. The country’s continuing urbanization and high population density in potential hazard risk areas highlight the need to develop systematic preparedness and response procedures for extreme events that would have consequences not only for the cities themselves, but for the country as a whole. The study aims to assess the current state of Switzerland’s disaster management at the city level. The empirical basis of the study consists of interviews conducted with city risk managers on their current risk assessments, planned countermeasures, and collaboration efforts with other actors, including partners from higher political levels and the private sector. Preliminary results from the study reveal that Swiss cities are organized more similarly with regard to crisis response than with regard to the identification and assessment of risks ahead of an event. While some cities have elaborate and institutionalized systems of risk assessment in place, measures in this area in other cities are rather in their infancy. Diversity also exists with regard to how well cities are integrated into the multi-level policy-making in the Swiss federal system.

Societal Acceptance of Unnecessary Evacuation

Jamie W MCCAUGHEY1,2, Ibnu MUNDZIR3, Anthony PATT2, Rizanna ROSEMARY3,4, Lely SAFRINA3,5, Saiful MAHDI3,6, Patrick DALY1

1Earth Observatory of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University; 2Climate Policy Group, ETH Zürich; 3International Centre for Aceh and Indian Ocean Studies, Aceh, Indonesia; 4Communication Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia; 5Psychology Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia; 6Statistics Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Uncertainties in forecasting extreme events force an unavoidable trade-off between false alarms and misses. The appropriate balance depends on the level of societal acceptance of unnecessary evacuations, but there has been little empirical data on this. Intuitively it may seem that an unnecessary evacuation would make people less likely to evacuate again in the future, but our study finds no support for this intuition. Using new quantitative (n=800) and qualitative evidence, we examine individual- and household-level evacuation decisions in response to the strong 11-Apr-2012 earthquake in Aceh, Indonesia.

This earthquake did not produce a tsunami, but the population had previously experienced the devastating 2004 tsunami. In our sample, most (85%) people evacuated in the 2012 earthquake, and nearly all (95%) say they would evacuate again if a similar earthquake happened in the future. Decisions and intentions to evacuate were associated with level of fear at the time of the 2012 earthquake and symptoms of mental trauma from the 2004 tsunami. These findings suggest that the appropriate balance between false alarms and misses may be highly context-specific. Investigating this in each context would make an important contribution to the effectiveness of early-warning systems.

Evaluation Competent Disaster Nurse in Saudi Arabia Against International Disaster Standards (Dual United Nation and United States Framework

Samah Mahmoud BANAJAH, Kevin GORMLEY, Katherine M. ROGERS

Queen's University Belfast, King Saud University, Saudi Commission for health specialities

Saudi Arabia has experienced many catastrophic events, particularly flooding, in the west of the country. Recently, many events demonstrate the inadequacies of the healthcare system in the Kingdom when responding to such disasters, with a particular problem being the lack of healthcare workers with disaster competencies within a national disaster response team in the country. Therefore there is an urgent need to develop disaster-competent healthcare personnel by adopting standard disaster operation competencies against which the readiness of Saudi healthcare workers can be assessed.

Emergency nurses in Saudi Arabia perceive themselves as unready to respond effectively to disasters (Althobaity & et al, 2015). There is an evidence of poor management in health care system effectiveness during disaster reported by the media. Especially when the number of victims exceed the capabilities of nurses to deal with cases due to lack of experience during mass-casualty incidents. This will call for urgent need to enhance the effectiveness of disaster response qualification particular among nurses in Saudi Arabia.

Saudi Arabia is moving toward framework the emergency response system and the nurses are considered the most viable healthcare worker based on their existing background to be first responders with such disasters. Therefore, the research questions are:

1. To what extent are our emergency nurses in Saudi Arabia prepared for disaster management?

2. Are our competencies affiliated with an international standard competencies?

This is quantitative cross-sectional study utilize the instrument which measure the disaster nursing competencies developed by Althobaity (2016). The study will measure the disaster competency level for an emergency registered nurses whose working in two main public hospitals in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. Then we will compare against an international standard for building foundation of disaster nursing preparedness for a better response in the Saudi healthcare system.

Who Can Save our Cultural Heritage in Time of War


University of Illinois, United States of America

The collective efforts of librarians, politicians, scholars and ordinary citizens to resist the Third Reich’s broad-scale acquisition and destruction of European cultural heritage is an object lesson for contemporary disaster management, both in its power to remind librarians of the persistence of archival looting and destruction as a tactic of cultural dominance and to provide models for contemporary practices through which such losses can be prevented. The literature on the destruction resulting from World War II is vast; However, little, if any, has mined its collaborative preservation and recovery strategies for practical application to more recent conflicts in countries such as Syria, Egypt, Iraq and Mali. Moreover, the sheer volume of materials preserved, protected or recovered during and after the war through the efforts of librarians in tandem with the Allied military forces, particularly the so-called “Monuments Men,” serves as a reminder that the protection of world cultural heritage in time of war or conflict is not the responsibility of a single person or group, but rather, a group effort supported by policy and active participation of political and institutional leaders.

This presentation aims to address the practice of current disaster management. To that end it presents the cases of several archives impacted by the Nazi occupation, and the creative strategies implemented for their preservation through the collaboration of archivists, ordinary citizens and the military. While these strategies were both intuitive and highly effective, their particular colleague of archivists’ ingenuity and military intervention has been overlooked in contemporary disaster management.

Mobile Satellite Communications ─ Disaster and Crisis Management

Ashok Kumar BHARTI

Inmarsat Ltd, India

The objective of my presentation is to let the international community associated with disaster management know that the existing solutions like VSAT, satellite phone, etc. are not the only options and are also not sufficient to deal with situations arising out of the extreme disasters.

Global experience suggests that whenever any hazard strikes, first to be razed are terrestrial communication systems. The situation at the disaster site becomes physically inaccessible and almost not reachable in terms of communication and therefore the need to have a complete communication solution at the earliest. Variety of disasters happening in different time zones, the urgent need is to get connected to the network of all the stake holders in the shortest possible time so that they can perform their functions as seamlessly as though they were working in their offices at their respective HQ.

Modern communication systems currently available that provide broadband IP connectivity to first responders in these disasters have arrived for commercial use and are portable (1 to 2 kg including battery and antenna), global, compatible with all off the shelf applications and most reliable.

Availability (anytime anywhere) of commercial, easy to use, Ka-band portable (~20 kg) devices with very high bandwidth (30-40 Mb/s) at affordable cost will help first responders to work almost seamlessly as they were working in their offices during normal working conditions.

My goal through this presentation is to make the disaster management community aware of the latest developments in the field of communications which will act as a force multiplier for the first responders on the ground and their rescue and coordination efforts will be able to save more lives.

Resource Management Condition in Tehran Metropolis (Emergency Operation Centers of Tehran District)

Ahmad SDEGHI1, Mohsen NADI2, MohammadReza FARZADBEHTASH3

1Tehran Municipality, Chief of Tehran Disaster Mitigation and Management Organization (TDMMO), Iran, Islamic Republic of; 2Tehran Municipality, Advisor of Chief of Tehran Disaster Mitigation and Management Organization (TDMMO), Iran, Islamic Republic of; 3Tehran Municipality, Advisor of Chief of Tehran Disaster Mitigation and Management Organization (TDMMO), Art University, Iran, Islamic Republic of

One of the most important issues in disaster response is resource management. It is vital to deliver right materials to right person on right time, place and amount. Tehran, as the capital of Iran, due to its political, geographical and economical conditions, has special condition and also exposes different hazards, especially earthquake. Therefore, providing special EOCs for Tehran and equipping them in an appropriate procedure is necessary. In 2003, building of 120 facilities of EOCs in 22 districts of Tehran was started and after more than ten years, we intend to consider the condition of these established EOCs.

In this article, we try to present municipality activities in building and equipping EOCs in different districts of Tehran. There are three different kinds of EOCs with various roles and goals. Each of them contains different equipment and is established for a special approach which will be indicated in this study.

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