Organizational Learning from Disastrous Events: A Case Study of a Multi-Utility Company Learning through the 2012 Northern Italy Earthquakes [PB 19]
Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Italy
The case of the multi-utility company AIMAG handled it’s interruptions generated by the Northern Italy Earthquakes in 2012 provides a starting point for our exploration of how an organization can learn from interruptions. On May 20 and May 29, 2012, two major earthquakes of 5.9 and 5.8 magnitude each hit Emilia Romagna region. AIMAG provides water, gas, waste management and public illumination to the area. It had no business continuity plan and earthquake was considered a rare event therefore was never taken into consideration by the management. With the effort of AIMAG and its external parties, it manged the interruptions in an impressive speed and restarted it’s service rapidly after the earthquakes. We are curious to know why they were able to manage the interruptions and how they managed the interruption. To answer these questions, we conducted an case study grounded in 11 interviews with top managers and important external stakeholders. We also collected archival material about AIMAG and earthquakes to triangulate the data.
We find that AIMAG is able to learn through rare events. It applied the knowledge learnt from previous emergencies into managing the interruption caused by the earthquakes. AIMAG was able to generate knowledge during the interruptions, retain it, transfer and apply it to the interruptions occurred after the earthquakes. AIMAG is capable to do so because it has particular environment context and organization context. AIMAG has almost all local employees with very low turnover rate. Working for AIMAG means working for their territory and their homes. AIMAG has a functional and flexible organization structure which allows employees to make autonomous decision during the interruptions. As a company of public ownership which provides utility, AIMAG has good relationship and natural ties with local entities. Therefore they are more willing to both receive and give help.
Implementation of Hygiene Monitoring at Shelters on NepalQuake: 1 Year Follow-up for Improvement [PB 20]
1University of Kochi, Japan; 2Okayama Prefectural University; 3Nursing Association of Nepal; 4Keio University
For disaster risk reduction, critical attention should be paid to hygiene control in shelters to maintain minimum health safety level. For that, one of challenges for health responders is data collection to generate reasonable information that can be used in predicting whether something is likely to lead to an outbreak in communicable diseases.
It is used an action research to investigate and report on the process of change to improve and implement the life environment assessment by local Nepalese nursing workforce and the sharing of collected health information through real time communication with governmental and international relief agencies.
The monitoring of community health status in disaster-affected districts is conducted by local nurses who were trained in Kathmandu on the utilization of the toolkit and dispatched in 26 camps in eight affected districts for four months: Kathmandu, Gorkha, Dolakha, Sindhupalchok, Nuwakot, Rasuwa, Bhaktapur and Laltipur. Through engaging practitioners in research, care improved, the quality of reporting changed, nurses response flexibly and nursing association was provided with information. This study showed that identifying shared information and engaging domestic community nurses and stakeholders in practical activity to achieve this goal can bring about sustained community health improvement. The government and donor who supported and guided the study as partners now have a basis to apply the results reconstruction. They are closer to their goals of consolidating data into one databases that can be analyzed automatically, which provides the capacity to monitor the surveillance system. Meanwhile, this study show that need for domestic health professionals like community health nurses to take urgent steps to make intelligence from information and develop a sustainable network as social capital to ensure that no one is left behind in disaster risk reduction.
Citizen activity in Water Monitoring ─ How to Boost it [PB 21]
1Latvian Environmental Investment Fund, Latvia; 2University of Turku
Environmental information gathering is costly, labour intensive and time consuming. In order to make good decisions for environment, citizens and businesses, we need to have the right information. With wide scale data gathering, information could be provided to all parties interested in gaining from this knowledge. But for wide scale data gathering, active citizens are needed.
Private Citizens are more and more interested in their own living environment, and the interest towards monitoring with the latest sensor technologies can be seen in lifestyle and consumer choices both in healthcare and environmental field. Continuous monitoring among regular citizens is a rising trend especially considering human body
In the FP7 funded BalticFlows project, two surveys were conducted: “Water Monitoring Via Citizen Activity”, to people of various ages and educational backgrounds amongst appropriate target groups within the regions of Hamburg, Tallinn, Turku, Uppsala and Riga. The first survey explored their willingness to install and maintain a small water quality monitoring device. The second survey, amongst the same target groups and especially the active users of social media, explored whether sensor technology is seen as a useful means of creating self-published content, or whether manual creation is more preferable.
To balance the needs of the monitoring programme, researchers, regional authorities and the active citizens participating in the monitoring process, it is seen important to cooperate with all of the stakeholders, and pay attention to the needs and requests of the active citizens. The survey gave answers about how and when would the active citizen like to contribute.
Environmental monitoring is one of the most suitable and used forms of citizen science. Based on the mutual mentoring and identified best practices, as well as future goals, the consortium conducted a list of items to be considered, when setting up environmental monitoring programmes, where active citizens can participate.
Syrian Population Movements and Camp Management with Together Vulnerable Groups [PB 22]
Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency(AFAD), Turkey
Today, the number of refugees and displaced people who are in need has reached over 50 million, the highest point since the World War II. There is an immediate need for peace and stability; however the present conditions in the world cannot even meet basic needs of displaced refugees. The Syrian crisis becomes one of the worst humanitarian crises. Conflicts in Syria which started in March 2011 forced many Syrians to leave their homes. Due to the humanitarian situation in Syria:
• Over 250 thousand people have lost their lives and 1 million people have been injured
• 13.5 million people need urgent humanitarian assistance
• 6.6 million people have been internally displaced, and another 4.7 million people have been forced to migrate to other countries
In Turkey, there are 274,060 Syrians residing in 26 camps in 10 provinces close to Syrian border and 2,414,626 Syrians outside the camps which makes a total of 2,688,686 registered Syrians. By AFAD’s (Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency) coordination; food, health, education, social, psycho-social services, spare time activities, and security are provided, and other humanitarian needs are met. Turkey is using every means available to provide humanitarian conditions for Syrians. Vulnerable groups in camps (women, children, youth etc.) can participate camp management by way of woman committees, the representatives of neighborhood, child and youth committees and community leaders.
In my poster I will try to explain Syrian population movement to Turkey, the services which be proved to Syrian people in TPCs and camp management system with together vulnerable people which is very critical to reduce social risk and tension between people and increase social inclusion in camp.
Determinants of Community Recovery in the Aftermath of Moore Tornado [PB 23]
Texas Tech University, United States of America
Natural disasters such as hurricanes and tornadoes impose considerable changes on the lives of their victims. Restoring the life of affected individuals into normal conditions is the topic of many recent research studies in the disaster recovery literature. Since disasters affect a wide range of inherently interconnected aspects of life such as work, health, family, etc, finding the optimum policy to revert these parameters into normal is an enigmatic dilemma. As the first step toward solving this dilemma we need to recognize the factors that are more important for recovery of the survivors. Although identifying these priorities is an indispensable step for crafting efficient polices, there is just a few research studies on this necessary stage. On the other hand, latent class analysis is one of the best methods in social sciences to categorize individuals into separate classes based on their preferences. Hence, the goal of this research is to explore the aspects of life which are deemed to be important for individuals and categorized them into separate classes through the use of latent classes. To explore community’s concerns/priorities in the aftermath of Moore tornado, we performed a data collection in the Fall and Spring of 2015-2016. The result revealed the existence of five latent classes, each corresponding to a certain demographic and socioeconomic group. These classes were then associated with several covariates through the use of Latent Class Regression and were used as an example of a decision support tool for a hypothetical scenario to be used by policyholders for predicting recovery trends by incorporating recovery concerns of the community.
Lifesaving Media Initiative to Enhance the Quantity and Quality of Media Presence in DRR [PB 24]
Keyfiat Sazan, Iran, Islamic Republic of
Although world media is very much interested in covering news of natural disasters like floods and earthquakes, it is also very keen to evade addressing the topic of preventing and mitigating the risks of natural events; And all this when mankind, to coexist with natural disasters which come in many types and forms and are actually on the escalation, require a global awareness that certainly cannot be realized without the participation of the media.
The following article, based on my own academic research for Master’s Degree level in Communication Sciences, raises this question that “How can we encourage the media to support risk management programs?”
I came to this conclusion that world history is full of recorded incidents which show clearly that crisis and disasters have been structure-building and structure-shaping; meaning that usually after the occurrences of natural or man-made disasters, there have been always been attempts aimed at ratifying regulations and establishing strategic programs.
The outcomes of this study offer a solution to the current declining sensitivity of the media due to constant occurrence of natural disasters, in form of the proposal for establishing a “Global Movement of Life-Saving Media”.
World media is more interested and motivated to cover topics which: (1) Is attractive to the public in general and (2) Is considered important by media owners or their financial sponsors. The topic of disaster risk reduction is not that colorful in either of them.
This global movement is aiming to highlight these aspects and proposes a model with 10 decisive steps for its realization. To monitor the effectiveness of this campaign, we can assess the shift in focus of the media from the topic of natural disasters at the time of occurrence, to the time before the occurrence and disaster risk reduction programs, as control factors.
Toward Disaster-Resilient Urbans: How to Increase Community Resilience by Planning a Sustainable Water Infrastructure in High-Risk Areas [PB 25]
1Art University of Isfahan, Iran; 2University of Isfahan, Iran
Urban infrastructures are essential parts of a sustainable city. Resilient urban infrastructures such as water system and electric power network are highly vulnerable and vital for reducing the social and economic impacts of earthquakes, especially in metropolitan areas.
The purpose of this article is to promote a practical approach to increase the water infrastructure seismic resilience toward a sustainable community. This paper develops a practical framework for analyzing the most important factors that impact the resilience of the community and urban systems when the earthquake occurred. Recent earthquakes in Iran caused thousands of human casualties and in some cases like Bam an urban area destroyed completely. Current disasters alarm governments and academic institutions to implement practical plans for highly populated urban areas like Tehran with 12 million inhabitants. Tehran is the greatest urban area in Iran, which located on active faults and despite the high seismicity, this city entered a period of rapid intensification since the 1990s. This paper analyzed the district 2 of Tehran as a high-risk area to understand the community resiliency. In this study, most probable earthquake scenarios were chosen to evaluate the social and built environment impacts of it. Furthermore, Geographic information system (GIS) technology was used to analyze the existing lifeline systems and visualizing its vulnerability in high-risk zones of Tehran. Additionally, the system failure rate was calculated and analyzed to understand the community vulnerability. The results of this research indicate that urban lifelines have significantly influenced the community resiliency. Furthermore, this paper offers suggestions for future urban development in high-risk areas.
The Role of Children in Disaster Risk Reduction [PB 26]
1Department of Disaster Public Health, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Health Human Resource Research Center, School of Management &Information Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; 3Department of Health in Disaster and Emergency, School of HSE, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 4Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; 5Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
Children are a major group who are affected by natural and man-made disasters in the word. So, children as vulnerable group should be considered in disaster risk reduction policies. The main objective of this study is being attention to children in disaster situations by positivism approach that would be child capacity in disaster risk reduction.
This is a qualitative study design focusing on the positive role of children in disasters and disaster risk reduction. Several peer review group discussions had been done by national and international experts. Major related databases were evaluated to make evidence base documents and assess if the hypothesis −children have capacity that should be consider in disaster risk reduction− is worth to be consider or not. Principle investigators had participated at international conferences and meeting to find the key person for the question. PI had contacted with experts in the field of child, disaster and disaster risk reduction by face-to-face interviews at international conferences and also Skype interviews had been held and followed by emails to extract data according the study aim. Furthermore, contextual analysis was used for data synthesis.
In this new approach it is believed that children have potential capacity instead of vulnerability. Accordingly, children ability should be recognized to improve risk reduction programs in the community and in this way decrease the consequence of disasters on children health and their happiness. Up to now, because of less at tensions to child capacity in disaster risk reduction schedule’s ; it is necessary that policy makers concentrate on further concentrations regarding to how they use the children potential capacity for both natural and man-made events.