The Experience for a Metropolis to bring Resilience to Every City: Barcelona
For the Barcelona City Council, resilience has been the engine which drives the infrastructures construction during the Olympic project and the next ones. The fact that currently resilience was a trend topic put on value the vision of the Barcelona managers during the last 30 years. In this article, the evolution of the city resilience is developed. A series of impacts – a generalized drought period, problems with the high-speed railway construction at the entrance of the city and finally the power outage – did underline the necessity to review the vulnerability of the city when infrastructures and supply services stop working. During these years different city mayors worked towards resilience.
Pasqual Maragall, Barcelona City Mayor 1982-1997, was the mayor managing the Olympic Games project. His vision is still useful "The XXI will be the century of cities." For him, the games enabled the city managers "give collective enthusiasm and pride to a city that had been beaten and had experienced many years of speculation, lack of investment and neglect..." Joan Clos, Barcelona City Mayor 1997-2006, planned different basic infrastructures and urban services management systems in the city. Jordi Hereu, Barcelona City Mayor 2006-2011, went deeper in the development of a specific resilience approach. Xavier Trias, Barcelona City Mayor 20011-2015, shared this new vision with other cities around the world and with global city players. Ada Colau, the actual City Mayor, is also working with a resilience vision. Using the actual resilience tools, that Barcelona has been developing all this years, is facing the important impact of migration crisis.
Resilience boards (its origins will be explained in this article) are now being used to respond to this European crisis at a city level. Innovative experiences at Metropolitan level will also be presented.
Resilience in High-Speed Train Networks – Promising, New Approach
Technische Hochschule Köln - University of Applied Sciences, Germany
Besides the identification and evaluation of risks and the vulnerabilities of systems to critical events, there is also an upcoming interest in the resilience of systems. The examination of a system, not only focusing on its vulnerability to certain events but also on the ability of its mitigation and recovery capabilities, becomes more and more an established part of risk and crisis management. Especially the aspect of “resilience in societies” gains more interest due to the fact that societies are increasingly dependent on critical infrastructure caused by urbanisation effects and digitalization causing risk of secondary order. In times of rising threats caused by natural or manmade disasters the challenge is getting even more complex.
In the German BMBF founded joint-project RE(H)STRAIN (Resilience of the Franco-German High-Speed Train Network) the authors are focusing on the development of a method to evaluate the resilience of internationally operating high-speed train networks (HSTN). Their aim is to develop a method, which is not only tailored to the end-users requirements/needs, but also easily accessible and provides usable results.
Therefore, an already implemented method, the so-called “Disaster Resilience Scorecards for Cities” developed by the UNISDR, will be adapted to the high-speed train system. During the process of adaption the authors will focus on implementing the specific characteristics of the system. Experts and end-users attend the process and evaluate the results in the project RE(H)STRAIN.
This resilience approach as part of the ability to maintain central functions and restore disturbed functions quickly before, during and after incidents will be a new improvement for risk and crisis management in critical infrastructure rail networks. The presented research in this abstract is an ongoing research in-progress.
New York, Singapore, Berlin – Climate Resilience of Critical Infrastructures around the Globe
EIFER - European Institute for Energy Research, Germany
Today cities face severe impacts of extreme weather events (EWE). In this presentation, 3 selected cities worldwide – New York, Singapore and Berlin – are presented with a focus on EWE and green spaces and their influence on climate resilience of critical infrastructures. The work is based on several concepts in the field of resilience and sustainability. The SDGs, Climate Action Plans, Disaster Risk Reduction and links to the energy-food-water nexus frame the research and implementation of strategies in urban planning. The work therefore aims at supporting cities to increase their resilience and thus provide a safe and healthy environment for their citizens.
Several concepts around climate resilience, energy supply and green spaces are reviewed for the selected cities New York, Singapore and Berlin. Additionally, latest research in the fields of Urban Ecosystem Services Reviews (uESR in Singapore conducted in 2014/2015) will be implemented in the general development phases of the cities.
Later, qualitative and quantitative indicators on resilience, such as proximity of critical energy infrastructures to EWE or green adaptation measures, clustering, densities and viewshed assessments will be modelled using GIS-based approaches. The necessary databases are compiled from public and free to access datasets provided by the cities and governments.
The following step is the compilation of a “resilience catalogue” that includes adaptation and mitigation measures in the cities. This will be supplemented by best practice examples in the frame of the above outlined topics.
In the past years, the energy-food-water nexus gained attention. Therein, the complementaries and competitions of the three main supply chains of food, water and energy for the public are discussed. The presented research gives insights on how to implement the critical infrastructures of energy, food and water supply in the context of climate change, EWE and sustainability goals of ecosystem services.
Policymakers, International and Local Organizations in the Building Resilient Cities
University of Coimbra, Portugal
Lisbon (Portugal) is the oldest city in Western Europe, and is an important economic and cultural center, however the aging of buildings and urban infrastructure have brought great challenges for the city. Boston (United States) is an important economic and cultural center of the East Coast, but although much of the city has prospered, certain neighborhoods, especially minority communities, were left behind, the lack of affordable housing, fewer educational opportunities and less preparation for good jobs threaten to divide the city more along racial and economic lines. In the southern hemisphere, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) is an important and vibrant cities, with sad disasters in recent history and the responsibility to host major events, the need for promotion of urban resilience has become a priority. Although in different contexts these three cities have in common the challenge of promoting urban resilience by increasing their ability to cope with change and continue to develop. This study aims to conduct a comparative analysis of the role of international and local organizations to support policy makers in developing policies to promote resilience. Are the financial constraints of the global economic crisis and the challenge of reducing the risk of seismic activity faced by Lisbon, the plans developed by Boston to respond to flooding and the impacts of rising sea level, or the initiatives of Rio de Janeiro front of the heavy rains that hit the city, all these initiatives have to show us the central role of coordination of the actors involved towards catalyzing initiatives, challenges and opportunities to invest in building more resilient cities.
Resiliense and Land Use, An Assessment of Earthquake Resilience in old Neighbourhoods of Tehran; Case Study of Tehran's 10th District
1Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran,Iran; 2Department of Geography, Farhangian University, Rasht, Iran; 3OMEGA Centre, Bartlett School of Planning, UCL, London, UK; 4Department of Urbanism, Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; 5Department of Urban Management, Faculty of Management and Economic, Science and Research branch of IAU, Tehran, Iran
Earthquakes are one of gravest natural disasters threatening cities and human settlements. Iran is a seismically active country and several major fault lines cross Iran and Tehran as the capital with a population around 9 million; is situated on three main fault lines and is in great risk of earthquake.
This article tries to determine a resilience score for one of Tehran’s older neighbourhoods. The parameter used for this assessment is urban land use. The data for this article was gathered through fieldwork and published sources.
Measured criteria are in five categories including: “distance to hazardous land use”, “distance from health and rescue centres”, “access to open spaces”, “access to main streets” and “urban fabric properties”. AHP analysis is then used to produce layers of data from each category illustrated in a map. The ultimate analysis is done by putting all layers of data together and get the end result. The final map shows us the final resilience conditions of 10th district of Tehran.
Results show that 2% of the area of district are in alarming conditions meaning they have minimum resilience in case of a disaster. In the rest of the district, 55% percent is in a bad condition, 35% have medium resilience, 5% in good conditions and only 3% show to have a very good resilience towards a natural disaster. Therefore the results show that 10th district of Tehran doesn’t have a good level of resilience in case of an earthquake.
The Resilience of Territories to Disasters
Resilience, defined as the ability to find a new balance after a disturbance, to renew, to reorganize and to adopt new paths to better protect themselves from a potential disaster, holds the attention of territory managers. Indeed, it gives new perspectives for dealing with unfavorable environments and/or disturbances of various origins.
Applying resilience to cities and territories implies the use of levers such as learning, innovation, development of cooperation and solidarity between stakeholders. It is a way to enrich conventional approaches usually focused on hazards or vulnerabilities, and to integrate risks and disasters management into overall objectives. Using resilience means taking into account the different scales of time and space, the capacity to act, the role of the population, the nature and the quality of links between stakeholders and the monitoring and the surveillance.
It promotes appropriate responses, somehow "tailor-made" solutions. This entails combining anticipatory actions to prevent disaster with approaches designed to address slow disturbances such as socio-economic crisis, job losses, climate change that durably affect territories. For this it is necessary to build a systemic knowledge taking into account the history, the identity and the ability to cope with perturbations, to better understand the dynamics and local resources, and to mobilize and produce new levers using organizational and social creativity in order to build meaningful projects in a collective way.
The combination of a conceptual and theoretical analysis and of several field studies on French sites who have experienced disasters, led to the establishment of factors of resilience in order to make more robust territories in an uncertain context.