The programme includes the IDRC Davos 2016 agenda of sessions, plenary sessions, special panels and workshops. Click on the session title for more details.

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Session 02: Inclusive DRR: Involve the Most Vulnerable
Monday, 29/Aug/2016:
8:30am - 10:00am

Session Chair: Andreas RECHKEMMER, University of Denver
Room: Schwarzhorn

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An Analysis of Perception to Natural Disasters of the Elderly in Beijing

Shujuan CUI, Lliang CAI, Ailun GUO, Jing'ai WANG

Beijing Normal University, China, People's Republic of

The research of vulnerability has become an important part in disaster risk management. The aged are especially vulnerable to natural hazards, one basic problems of which is the perception to disaster. Beijing is taken as an example for its high population density and serious population aging. Based on the study of literature, three indexes are taken as the different aspects of perception: experience, preparedness and knowledge. An index called perception bias index is built to analyze the effect of location, education, age and gender. Results:

1. The main influence factors to disaster experience are location and age: it is higher in the mountain area (the town and village) and decreases with the increase of age; The main influence factors to disaster preparedness are education and age: with the improvement of education and decrease of age, the preparedness increases; The main influence factors to disaster knowledge are education and age: with the improvement of education and decrease of age, the knowledge increases.

2. The perception bias is mainly affected by education, and then age and location. With the improvement of education and the increase of age, the perception bias decreases. The perception of the elderly in the plain area (the downtown area) is lower than in the mountain area.

3. The haze disaster and drought are the two types of disasters that get the most perception. The perception of different types of disasters is influenced by the demography characteristics. The study of the perception in the different indexes and in different group of demography characteristic is expected to provide some scientific basis to improve the perception of the elderly.

Suggestion from the Elderly Person Facilities at the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake

Takiko OKAMOTO, Ichiro OOKAWA, Zynko NAKAMURA, Takashi KANDA

Meiji Gakuin University, Tukuba University, Shouin University in Japan

For the management position’s 11 members of the elderly person facilities encountered in City of Kesennuma in Miyagi prefecture at the Great East Japan Earthquake, we carried out an interview investigation in 2014. The contents of the interview were analyzed divided into six time period (before the earthquake, the earthquake and tsunami on the day, one week from the day after the earthquake, one month from one week from the earthquake, some months from one month form the earthquake, some months from one year and so on) of from preparing for calamity before the disaster until the interview time. Framework of analysis was three divided by ensuring the safety and security of life and daily living, and others. Each part of divided gave a description of action of managers for the elderly person in facilities and the staff, and contacts of city government, attitude of volunteers and others.

As a result, we were able to summarize the suggestion that we should prepare for as a crisis management of elderly person facilities in following four points.

1. The elderly person and staff training for the drill of a disaster, it is necessary to be carried out of various situations of calamity.

2. Exchange of the support agreement at the time of the disaster between the elderly person facilities with neighboring facility and national organization.

3. Manager of the facility should essential to make up the staff organizational structure that can better situation judgment and act appropriately even if a manager is absent.

4. At the time of disaster, manager to tell for the staff that about the meaning of the work for the elderly person facility.

Such arrange for the disaster were found that it is also possible to clarify the amount of equipment and food needed for disaster.

Making DiDRR a Reality: A Three-Step Approach to Empowering People with Disabilities to Become Agents of Change and Resilience

Emma CALGARO1, Leilani CRAIG2, Nick CRAIG2, Dale DOMINEY-HOWES1, Alexandra GARTRELL3, Karlee JOHNSON4, Parichatt KRONGKANT5, Ngin SAORATH6, Jerome ZAYAS7

1University of Sydney, Australia; 2Craigs Consultants International (CCI); 3Monash University; 4Stockholm Environment Institute–Asia (SEI-Asia); 5KPC Consultant Co. Ltd; 6Cambodian Disabled People’s Organization (CDPO); 7Inclusive Development and Empowerment Agenda (IDEA)

People with disabilities (PWDs) are four times more likely to die when a disaster strikes than those without disabilities. Inclusion is a human right yet PWDs remain unseen, unheard and unaccounted for in DRR. The Sendai Framework mandates stronger inclusion of PWDs in DRR. Yet pathways to achieving inclusion targets remain unclear due to limited empirical data on the needs of PWDs, a disconnect between DRR practices and disability-rights laws and a lack of guidelines on how to mainstream Disability-inclusive DRR (DiDRR). Another powerful determinant of ongoing exclusion is the enduring perception that PWDs need to be looked after, a perception that robs PWDs of self-belief and the opportunity to contribute to the creation of informed and effective DiDRR processes that they are often locked out of. A true transformation in DRR practice can only be achieved by simultaneously addressing each of these challenges. In this paper, we outline the three interlinked steps that are needed to make DiDRR and inclusion a lived reality:

1. Increase knowledge and skills by providing empirical knowledge on what support PWDs need and how DRR actors can work with PWDs to ensure this support;

2. Foster changes in attitudes and beliefs by empowering PWDs and DPOs to become champions in their communities and to work directly with PWDs and DRR actors to facilitate shared learning; and

3. Facilitate inclusive governance processes that support DiDRR (via training, workshops and creating DiDRR mainstreaming toolkits) and demonstrate DiDRR mainstreaming best practice.

This approach is being operationalized in a new 2-year project that focuses on three countries in South-East Asia - Thailand, the Philippines and Cambodia - and is funded by the Global Resilience Partnership. These changes will strengthen the voices of PWDs and provide them with the institutional and social support needed to respond effectively to natural hazards.

The Role of Children in Disaster Risk Reduction Policies: A Case Study with Hearing and Hard of Hearing Children


University of Thessaly, Greece

This paper reports on the results from a series of consultative workshops in mainstream educational settings within which hard of hearing children were included. The main theme of those workshops was disasters, risks and hazards and students’ understanding and management. Children and in particular children with disabilities are often overlooked in disaster programs and rarely considered as important actors in risk reduction strategies.

The present study aims to understand (1) what concepts do children who are hearing and hard of hearing have regarding the notion of a disaster and (2) what assumptions do they make about disaster risk reduction and resilience building programmes and practices for urban contexts. This case study took place in a general educational setting. The participants in the study involved of 25 children (age range: 9-10) attending the 3rd grade, out of whom three were hard of hearing and 23 were hearing. Also, two teachers and a researcher were involved in a collaborative scheme planning consultative workshops. In each workshop, the principles of differentiated instruction were applied to enhance children’s access and understanding. Data were obtained mainly through teachers’ field notes and reflective logs.

The analysis of the data revealed that the all children and particularly children who were hard of hearing had very low or very limited and narrow knowledge in relation to disasters. Through the workshops they developed a broader understanding of disasters and became aware regarding their role in effective disaster management and disaster risk reduction. Finally, the discussion of the present study puts strong emphasis on the significant role of differentiated instruction in developing accessible programs for children with and without disabilities in relation and emphasizes the need to empower children to become active participants in the design, the development and the implementation of disaster risk reduction policies.

Critical Voices, Existing Choices: Deliberative Polling Options for Improving Resilience of People in Rapidly Urbanising Tamale, Ghana


University for Development Studies, Ghana

The need to increase the space for participation in public decision-making has gathered momentum over the past couple of decades across the developing world. Whereas participation itself is a wholesome concept, how to achieve this in practical terms has never been satisfactorily addressed. Would it be possible to apply deliberative democratic methods to enhance participation in the poorest areas of developing countries? How would such a methodology work particularly among populations with high rates of illiteracy? To get around the challenges of self-selection and other methods of public consultation, can a good random sample be recruited to deliberate in-depth for consequential policy questions affecting rapidly urbanizing communities? Will process bring out policy options that reflect the true voices and choices of the people? These are the questions Ghana’s - and West Africa’s - first Deliberative Poll set out to address. Conducted in Tamale, a city in Northern Ghana, the Deliberative focused on urgent questions of clean water, sanitation, hygiene, livelihood diversification and food security. The results shed light on broad questions: who can deliberate in depth on difficult trade-offs? Should public consultation be left to the stakeholders and experts or can the people themselves decide? The sampling, opinion changes, knowledge gains and patterns of small group discussion and transcriptions of the dialogues all provide a great deal of evidence about value added in ensuring meaningful participation in public decision making. What we did is unique in its own right as a way to consult the public in sub-Saharan Africa to craft policies that can achieve acceptance and legitimacy from those who must live with them.

Exploring Vulnerability of Low Income People due to Consecutive Disasters: A Case Study on Kalapara Urban Area of Bangladesh

Papon Kumar DEV

Technical University Berlin, Germany

The coastal populations of Bangladesh are more exposed and sensitive to disasters and they have less coping capacity to tackle those externalities. Kalapara, a coastal sub‐district of Bangladesh is largely affected by different cyclones, storm surges and floods regardless of same scenario. Kalapara has faced several cyclones, floods, storm surges in the recent years. Loss or damage of human life, livestock, bio‐diversity, valuable goods etc. is significant consequences which press especially the low income people in a severe miserable platform. The study analyses the vulnerability of these low income people in respect to the last 25 years’ natural disasters. It also explores several dimensional features using different meteorologically tracked variables like temperature, humidity etc. After that, it represents some key strategies both for household and community levels to minimize the risk.

The study based on both primary and secondary data. The primary household survey was conducted mainly to realize the fact on social vulnerability and secondary information dealt with hazard vulnerability. At the end, total vulnerability score was calculated through compilation of the social and hazard vulnerability index at total value of 1 in the context of exposure, sensitivity and adaptation. The structured household questionnaire responses facilitated different scenarios under sensitivity and adaptation which later on shaped the scale of vulnerabilities referring the renowned models of Haki and others. The outputs were flourished through vulnerability mapping dividing the total study area into small grids using GIS which outlines the high spatial susceptibility in those urban clusters where the concentrations of poor people are higher. It also attempted to correlate the vulnerability score with household perception level (local weather patterns and changes with global climate, their institutional linkages, local climate policy etc.) which predicts worrisome situation defining the impact of disasters in the next century may be even worse than today’s.

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