Estimating Post-Earthquake Shelter Requirements
1IUSS Pavia, Italy; 2Global Risk Forum GRF Davos
The assessment of shelter needs for displaced population in the aftermath of major earthquake events is one of the main challenges that emergency responders currently have to face. Based on the scale of the disaster, the short-term shelter demand can turn into a temporary housing need for displaced population, which is a local government responsibility. The study presented here, is focused on a critical review of currently available methodologies and software packages that were developed specifically to estimate the number of displaced people and those who will most likely seek public sheltering. The main features and shortcomings of such tools are highlighted and interpreted with a view to future improvement and application in the disaster management field. Two software tools, HAZUS-MH and ERGO-EQ, have proved to be both exhaustive in considering many different variables involved in the shelter needs estimation and adaptable to the modelling of a user-defined scenario. Finally, a discussion is presented on possible ways to improve and to better reflect the local conditions, in order to produce more realistic outputs.
Emergency Shelter Experiences and Preparedness Among 2014 Flood Victims in Kelantan, Malaysia.
Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
The 2014 flood was the worst in Kelantan’s recorded history. The unprecedented event affected more than 100,000 families and destroyed an estimated of 2805 homes. A survey of 350 households was conducted in the worst affected area, Kuala Krai. The objectives were to determine the preparedness and response strategies of the affected victims, and relief assistance provided by the authority. Majority moved to the emergency shelters which comprised of schools and community halls by themselves after being informed by their neighbours. Data indicated that they were somewhat unprepared for the disaster particularly related to financial aspects. The level of satisfaction of the respondents was fairly low with the physical amenities of the emergency evacuation shelter including sleeping, food and water, washing, lavatory, bathing and other facilities. Similar low assessment was given to the medical and counselling support. The findings are expected as the emergency responding bodies and the government were unprepared for such as a large scale flooding. This suggests the need to include surge capacity building in the emergency response plan and standard operating procedures as to enable the responding agencies to scale up their operations rapidly and effectively when necessary. Suggestions and implications for community based disaster preparedness are discussed.
A Multi-objective Goal Programming Approach for Locating Emergency Shelters under Damage Uncertainty
Indian Institute of Management Rohtak, India, India
Every year, natural disasters such as earthquake, hurricane, landslide, etc. kill thousands of people and destroy habitats and assets worth millions of dollars. A humanitarian response and recovery process takes considerable time, therefore, temporary establishments are arranged in order to provide shelter to affected population. Emergency shelters are vital for an effective humanitarian relief; therefore they must be strategically planned. Choosing the locations of temporary shelter areas for accommodating homeless people is critical to the quality of humanitarian assistance provided after a large scale emergency. The shelter locations could influence the total congestion-related evacuation time. Several papers in the existing literature have considered their locations as vital to an evacuation process. The aim of the present study is to locate potential emergency shelter sites as a critical part of humanitarian relief preparedness and response. The work proposes a multi-objective model based on goal programming approach for locating strategic shelter sites under uncertainties of damage to the infrastructure due to disasters like earthquakes, hurricanes, etc. The study attempts to consider evaluation of multiple objectives based on both quantitative and qualitative criteria, and solves it to obtain a non-dominated solution under different scenarios of disaster damage caused. A numerical example is also presented to illustrate the practice ability of the proposed hybrid approach in solving the model. The contribution of this work is to propose a range of possible shelter locations for a humanitarian relief organization, using a robust decision support framework.
SPEAK: Social media and crisis communication during cascading disasters
University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
The immediacy of social media has the potential to both help and hinder emergency managers in their response to crisis situations. Sites such as Facebook and Twitter can be used by incident managers to provide accurate, real-time information to members of the public affected by such incidents. However, the rumours, disinformation and misinformation spread on social media may also have negative consequences for emergency management. Panic and anxiety among members of the public may cause further strain upon critical infrastructures that lead to disruption of other key services. It is in this context that the identification of best practices for using social media for crisis and risk communication appears critical for emergency managers.
In order to address these issues, this presentation presents some of the results from the European Commission-funded project “CascEff: Modelling of dependencies and cascading effects for emergency management in crisis situations”. The project examines the “cascading” effects of both natural and human disasters – where an initial incident can snowball, potentially threatening lives, property and the environment across large areas. Specifically, this paper will focus on how social media can help key stakeholders mitigate the effects of cascading disasters.
This paper will explore the value of using social media platforms during the various stages of the disaster cycle. It presents the results of a study involving 41 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders (including police, fire and rescue services, representatives from local authorities and professional journalists), as well as a review of several case studies including the floods in the South-West of England (2013-14) and the Pukkelpop festival disaster (2011). It concludes by outlining a series of guidelines for communication during crisis situations, known as SPEAK. These guidelines are outlined in order to assess how social media might play a key role in the management of disasters with cascading effects.
Public Cyclone Shelters in Queensland, Australia
Mullins Consulting, Australia
The majority of Queensland’s coastline is in Australia’s cyclone region. Many of the communities in this region are at risk of storm tide inundation should a cyclone impact the community. Potential storm tide inundation areas are evacuated prior to the cyclone and some people in older houses also leave their homes. Some evacuate the area and travel to locations outside the warning zone. The majority stay with friends or family in houses built to cyclone resistant standards outside the evacuation zone. Others seek shelter in public buildings. To meet this need and reduce community vulnerability an infrastructure of public cyclone shelter is being developed. Buildings used normally as indoor sports or performing arts facilities have been constructed to meet cyclone shelter guidelines. The buildings are distributed along the coastline from Weipa in Far Northern Queensland to Yeppoon over a 1,000km to the south. Buildings constructed can collectively shelter over 10,000 people.
This paper presents the Design Guidelines for the shelters, and methods to reduce wind loads on the building and to improve the comfort of people within the shelter.
The goal of the design guidelines is to provide design requirements, design information and test methods for building professionals, manufacturers of building elements, builders and building owners for the construction of public cyclone shelters that will withstand the impacts of severe tropical cyclones and protect people sheltering within the building.
The design guidelines include provisions for: shelter location; structure design loads; access, occupancy and egress; fire safety; health and amenity.
In 2015 more than 800 people sheltered safely in the Yeppoon cyclone shelter during severe tropical cyclone Marcia.
Impact of a Collective Action in a Disaster-affected Community to Site a Temporary Debris Management Site
1Construction Engineering and Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette, USA; 2Civil Engineering & Political Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, USA
Disasters generate a considerable amount of debris equivalent to more than 5~10 times the typical amount of the annual solid waste generated by the community. Also, 30~50% of the total disaster recovery cost are allocated to the debris clearance. To maximize the debris removal speed and provide extra time to sort recyclable materials from the debris generated, many organizations and agencies recommend siting a Temporary Debris Management Site (TDMS) between the community and final destinations. However, a TDMS can have potential risks to the environment and health for those living nearby, noise and congestion related to transportation and lower property values.
The issues associated with siting a TDMS can be defined as a collective choice problem where one individual or district in a community can be harmed by hosting a site that benefits a number of other individuals or the entire community (asymmetric public dilemma). This study investigates social behaviors (opposition to a TDMS) to provide insights into factors which give rise to public oppositions to the sitting and operation of a TMDS, and to identify the actions taken to try to reduce/overcome that opposition.