The programme includes the IDRC Davos 2016 agenda of sessions, plenary sessions, special panels and workshops. Click on the session title for more details.

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Session 16: Awareness and Preparedness in Integrative Risk Management
Tuesday, 30/Aug/2016:
2:05pm - 3:35pm

Session Chair: Niru NIRUPAMA, York University
Session Chair: Lee MILES, Bournemouth University
Room: Seehorn

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Distrust of Tsunami Vertical Evacuation Buildings

Jamie W MCCAUGHEY1,2, Ibnu MUNDZIR3, Patrick DALY1, Saiful MAHDI3,4, Anthony PATT2

1Earth Observatory of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University; 2Climate Policy Group, ETH Zürich; 3International Centre for Aceh and Indian Ocean Studies, Aceh, Indonesia; 4Faculty of Statistics, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Along the subduction zones of the world (including the Pacific Ring of Fire), tsunamis may strike coastlines within 15-30 minutes following an earthquake. For cities in flat, coastal areas, tsunami vertical evacuation (TVE) buildings or artificial mounds may provide the only means of escape for many coastal residents. However, the effectiveness of TVE structures depends on societal trust, an issue that has not been researched. Our study focuses on nearby residents' (n=200) trust in TVE buildings during a strong earthquake and spontaneous mass evacuation on 11-April-2012 in Banda Aceh, Indonesia.

This earthquake did not produce a tsunami, but the population had previously experienced the devastating 2004 tsunami. Several TVE buildings had been built in coastal areas of Banda Aceh city during the post-2004 reconstruction. We find that most people who evacuated did not evacuate to the nearby TVE buildings in 2012 and do not intend to do so in a future evacuation, instead preferring to evacuate horizontally to inland destinations. Most people doubt that the TVE buildings are strong and tall enough to withstand a tsunami; the fact that the 2004 tsunami caused near-total destruction in these areas may be the most important reason for this. Demographic factors, disaster experience, and risk perceptions do not substantively differ between those who prefer to evacuate to the TVE building and those who prefer to evacuate inland. People would be more likely to evacuate to a TVE building if it were the village mosque, and if it had available food, water, and medicine. Research on these issues in other locations with TVE structures would make an important contribution toward making TVE structures more effective.

Disaster Management Awareness Program in Medical Schools in Nepal: An Inclusive and Comprehensive Approach to Build Community Resilience

Sunita PANTA

Shree birendra Hospital, Nepal

Nepal is a South Asian country extremely vulnerable to natural disasters such as floods, landslides, fire, drought, earthquakes and epidemics killing hundreds of people each year. Unstable government, difficult terrain, variable climatic conditions, active tectonic processes, unplanned settlement, poor construction practices, dense and increasing population, poor socioeconomic conditions and low literacy rates are the compounding factors.

The devastating Gorkha earthquake 2015 revealed many pitfalls. Lack of comprehensive disaster management education and community awareness were identified as the crucial factors. Medical personnel have a pivotal role during the whole spectrum of the disaster namely: response, relief and rehabilitation phases.

A comprehensive educational disaster program tailor made for Nepalese context would be very beneficial to build the community resilience. Disaster management awareness program in medical schools in Nepal is such a program to educate the young professionals, aware the community as a first responder and build a network of disaster management agencies.

The module consists of small group interactive session of eight lectures delivered by subject matter experts to fourth year medical students divided into six groups. The lectures focuses on introduction to disasters, complex crisis situation, vulnerable groups identification and their social inclusion, personal safety, structural and functional components, National disaster management framework, humanitarian clusters and disaster preparedness.

The pilot project is currently running in the Nepal Army Institute of Health Sciences (NAIHS) in Kathmandu Nepal. In the next academic session the project will be implemented in other medical institutions of Nepal. This is a joint project of Nepalese Army and office of the defense cooperation United States. The project will evaluate the students prior to the course, at the end of the course and after five years to assess the implementation of their knowledge.

Integrating Partners and Resources to Enhance Community Preparedness

Amanda Jenifer LUBIT

National Association of County and City Health Officials, United States of America

The National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) represents the United States’ 2800 local health departments, working to help mitigate, respond and recover from all types of disasters. We engage with health departments of all sizes and with various forms of governance ranging from decentralized local government to centralized state governments. NACCHO also works with federal partners, including Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Department of Homeland Security, to assist in the development, practical application and execution of best practices to address a spectrum of public health security threats.

Faced with staff shortages and budget cuts, LHDs are expected to protect their communities with limited resources. This presentation will outline three ways in which NACCHO has worked to assist LHDs in this work by identifying previously underutilized community resources that local communities can tap into. First, we have leveraged existing infrastructure to expand local surge capabilities. Second, we have cultivated community partnerships to provide access to networks of resources. Thirdly, we have developed social media tools that complement existing strategies and increase local capacity. The goal of these projects has been to increase capacity for preparedness and response while limiting the burden on local health departments and surge on healthcare facilities during a catastrophic event.

Any type of mass casualty event will result in large numbers of people being sick or injured, and needing care. With this high demand comes a surge on medical facilities, causing emergency departments, clinics and medical offices to become crowded. Crowding leads to delays in seeing providers so patients experience a delay in receiving information and appropriate treatment. These projects were designed with this scenario in mind. To strengthen local capacity to respond to an event, we have used innovative approaches, integration and collaboration as described below.

Key Design Components of an International Field Course on Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction


University of Waterloo, Canada

One of the most effective learning approaches for the study of hazards and disaster risk reduction is the immersive and experiential “field course”. This presentation outlines some of the key design components used in a recent joint undergraduate/graduate field course held over a 3 week period on the island of Java, Indonesia. The goal of this presentation is to assist other educators in designing effective field-based courses exploring the hazards and disasters theme. Numerous field course outlines were consulted, and pedagogical materials on field course design were consulted before key elements were selected. These key elements included: pairing with local academics to facilitate field course logistics, employment of full-time local assistants/translators who were ‘embedded’ in the course, allowing students to select and design their own research topic within the broad ‘hazards and disaster risk reduction’ umbrella, and using field course sites as a backdrop for student-led field presentations. One additional and important design element involved pre-trip student fundraising to support an Indonesian organization working with vulnerable and hazard-affected individuals, and the reasoning behind this course element will be explained in this presentation.

Role of Women in Energy Conservation: Exploring Link between Energy Conservation and Women Economic Empowerment


National Defence University,, Pakistan

Energy conservation takes to decrease energy supply and demand gap. Mostly energy conservation strategies highlight the energy conservation by emphasizing efficient energy technologies; while ignoring the efficiency in contact to socio-economic construct of energy utility. Referred to social construct of energy conservation implies the ability and willingness to reduce energy consumption or using less energy for a constant service. Economic empowerment implies to make and act upon economic decisions. The enhanced level of women economic empowerment may promote energy care in the society. This study is to explore the link between energy conservation and women economic empowerment and to assess the energy conservation trend among the economically empowered women. The study utilizes Focused Delphi to describe the link between energy conservation and women economic empowerment by using the concepts of linkage, possibility of practice and intensity of practice in three rounds. Exploratory Delphi to measure about the manifestation for energy conservation among economically empowered women by using the concepts of drivers and activities for energy conservation. The energy conservation trends found positive 63.25% and negative 26.75% in economically empowered women, positive 43.75% and negative 45% in not economically empowered women. The study is contribution to organize civil society to manage the energy demand for sustainable development.

Iran Disaster Risk Reduction, an Institutional Debate


1Chancellor of Shakhes Pajouh Engineering and Research Institute of Natural Hazards, Isfahan, Iran; 2Vice Chancellor of Shakhes Pajouh Engineering and Research Institute of Natural Hazards, Isfahan, Iran; 3Researcher of Shakhes Pajouh Engineering and Research Institute of Natural Hazards, Isfahan, Iran

Iran is a Middle Eastern country located within the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf region. Disasters have affected the communities, economy and environment of Iran. The organization of crisis management established to reduce disaster risks in Iran and research institutions such as Shakhes Pajouh are building capacities and doing integrated research on disaster risk reduction.

People and the environment are increasingly suffering from the effects of natural disasters. Iran is a land of world’s third largest natural disasters. 10 natural disasters in Iran for the period 1900 to 2013 are presented in this paper. The aims of this investigation are to characterize disasters and their effects on the Iranian communities as well as introducing relevant institutions for reducing risks and doing integrated research on disaster risk reduction.

Iran is exposed to many types of disasters. Drought, floods and earthquakes affected too many people and caused considerable economic damage costs. Geo-tectonic position, climate change, greenhouse gas emission and lack of stable buildings for earthquake resistance are the major reasons for increasing natural hazards in Iran.

The strategies adapted to organize the process of crisis and risk management in Iran are:

1) Establishment of 9 specialized committees for disaster risk reduction management in 1990 to 2000

2) Establishment of aids and life-saving project in 2003

3) Establishment of the supreme council of crisis and risk management with the leadership of the president of Iran in 2007

4) Establishment of the organization of crisis and risk management in 2007

Shakhes Pajouh as the first private research institute of natural disaster reduction engineering in Iran was established in 2001 and has been progressing very fast. It offers Ph. D. and MSc. courses by research and is actively involved with integrated study and research on disaster risk reduction.

Disaster Risk Reduction of Environmental Impacts from Mining (Case Study: The Laashotor Mines of Isfahan, Iran)


1Shakhes Pajouh Engineering and Research Institute of Natural Hazards, Iran, Islamic Republic of; 2Shakhes Pajouh Engineering and Research Institute of Natural Hazards, Iran, Islamic Republic of

Mining refers to all the methods that used for accessing to mineral materials. Destruction and changing natural landscape, waste piles, making holes and extreme changes in the primitive form of nature, the subsiding of the earth, acceleration in evasion process, road construction and change in natural land forms, destruction and annihilated of underground water aquifer result of destruction of ground’s layers and state, demolition of earth and vegetation, released of poisonous substances, drainage acid mines, melting factories, noise, dust, industrial minerals and environmental effects are geomorphological and environmental consequences of mining. The purpose of this study is to examine environmental effects of mining on the landscape and residences, risk reduction of environmental impacts from mining and estimating the amount of destruction and threat which are the results of exploiting of mines with effect of different factors in from work of three scenario maintenance and landscape management, maintenance and natural resources management, determining suitable location for mineral and also effects of these activities on Baharestan city that is located near the Lashootor mines. So, we consider two methods, first-hand data from questionnaires collected from residencies and analyzed with statistical methods and second-hand data which are collected from satellite and analyzed with several index making decision methods. This study is descriptive-analytical and is done in field. In this study AHP, TOPSIS and VIKOR is used to display a space model for destruction geomorphological landscape for area in which mines exploit. Eight norms for destruction landscape and six mineral location was identified in Lashootor mines. We weighted norms with the use of AHP in three scenario and ranked the areas with the use of TOPSIS and showed different priorities of mining location. Finally six areas were given priorities considering landscape destruction, natural source destruction and suitable location for mining.

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