The programme includes the IDRC Davos 2016 agenda of sessions, plenary sessions, special panels and workshops. Click on the session title for more details.

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Session 01: Terrorism Preparedness and Response
Monday, 29/Aug/2016:
8:30am - 10:00am

Session Chair: Laila Hussein MOUSTAFA, University of Illinois
Session Chair: Stefan PICKL, Universitä„t der Bundeswehr München
Room: Seehorn

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Crisis Management Strategies of Thailand‘s Tourism Industry Following Political Unrest and Terrorism in 2014/15

Kerstin KRIHA

HTW Chur, Switzerland

Political instabilities and terror attacks pose a serious challenge for the tourism industry which relies on stable surrounding conditions. Thailand has seen its share of such crises in recent years with riots and a military coup in 2014, and a bombing in Bangkok on 17 August 2015. This research investigates the impacts of these events as well as the corresponding crisis management activities of the tourism industry. For this purpose, 19 key stakeholders from the private (Tour operators, hotels) and public sector (Tourism Authority of Thailand) were interviewed both in Europe and on site in Thailand. The research analyses the impacts of both crises on tourist arrivals through Desk and Field research. Differences of the impacts on stakeholders in Bangkok, Phuket, and overseas are highlighted, and factors explaining Thailand's resilience are discussed. Another part of the thesis is dedicated to the analysis of crisis management activities prior to, during and after the crises. The threat and opportunity by Social Media channels for crisis communication is further discussed. The research also analyses to which extent collaboration between private and public stakeholders took place, and how the integrated industry cooperation could be improvement. Finally, the efficiency of Thailand’s tourism industry in managing political instabilities and terrorism is evaluated and major improvements from previous cases are highlighted. Due to the involvement of stakeholders from all relevant parties, the thesis was able to gain practical insights into the complexity behind the management of tourism crises.

Adapting Mass Casualty Response In An Era Of Increased Active Shooter Incidents

Bradley Charles KEATING1,2

1Colorado Springs Fire Department, United States of America; 2Clarion Global Response, United States of America

With an increase in mass shootings in recent years the reality is that prehospital providers may find themselves responding to an active shooter scenario during their careers. Lessons learned from the incidents in Paris and the Aurora Theater shooting demonstrate the lapses in current active shooter and triage protocols. The disconnect between the law enforcement and prehospital EMS response objectives often leads to more negative outcomes for those injured in the shootings. Uniformed and agreed upon policy shifts need to be created that address the needs of all agencies involved.

In addition to the lack of a unified response and command structure, the deficiencies associated with many of the current accepted triage methods (SALT, START) demonstrate the need for a fundamental shift in how active shooter incidents are approached. The need for greater training amongst all members involved in a response is seen in a recent study in Prehospital and Disaster Medicine that showed only 37% of first responders felt adequately trained for a mass casualty event. Even with training, studies of both SALT and START triage methods showed that both methods were neither sensitive nor specific in relation to patient outcome.

The presentation will discuss the needs of an active shooter incident, along with the use of a cold, warm, and hot zone approach by all responding agencies. This method allows for victim extraction from cleared areas while officers pursue and eliminate the threat. Additionally, implementing techniques learned while training in Israel a new triage technique will be mentioned that relies heavily on paramedic intuition and mental status when sorting patients. The new method also eliminates the yellow category and labels patients only as immediate, delayed, or deceased.

Counterterrorism Hospitals Preparedness and Response, An Italian Pilot Project

Alessandra ROSSODIVITA1, Maria Rita GISMONDO1, Carlo PICCO2, Alberto ZOLI2, Giuliano RIZZARDINI1

1Luigi Sacco Academic Hospital, Milan, Italy; 2AREU- Regional Medical Emergency Service Company of Lombardia, Milan, Italy

The recent acts of terrorism have generated a massive numbers of injured and dead and have posed the real risk of possible further attacks also with the use of non-conventional agents (CBRNE). Medical systems worldwide are facing the new threat of morbidity associated with these hazards. Hospitals should be prepared in early recognition and response, especially in cases of bio-terrorist attack, or deliberate release of toxic substances.

Actually in Italy few hospitals are really ready to response in case of terrorist attacks to population, especially in the field of non-conventional agents, such as Biological, Chemical, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosives (CBRNE). The aim is to prepare a specific terrorism task-force inside the Emergency Departments able to prepare and train physicians and nurses in case of terrorism attacks to the population.

The BIOHAZA Hospital Sentinels Project, born in Lombardy, with the idea to prepare the hospitals of this Italian district to cope with this kind of hazards. AREU – the Regional Medical Emergency Service Company of Lombardia (EMS); and Hospital L. Sacco, as referral Italian National Center for Bioterrorism have set up a new operational project, preparing a pilot model of hospital response in case of terroristic attack, able to an early recognition, preparedness and response especially for non-conventional attacks.

Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosive (CBRNE) attacks or incidents require more specialized training and response. The medical and health infrastructure must be prepared to prevent and treat illness and injury that would result from chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear or explosive terrorism (CBRN).

The project attempts to enhance knowledge of a variety of threats and preparing hospitals to suitably cope with those hazards. Prepare more resilient and safe hospitals is the aim of this project to better protect population.

Certified Systems to Reduce Security Risks in Modern Societies and the Contribution of the CRISP Approach


1TU Berlin, Germany; 2Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium; 3Trilateral Research Ltd., UK

The importance of security systems has significantly increased in the last decade, especially in the last few years as new, substantial threats have been encountered across the globe. Based on new and advanced technological approaches, they aim to improve security in the public and the private sector, as well as the protection of critical infrastructure. Concurrently, the importance of data protection and the avoidance of inappropriate surveillance is rising. A solution to increase trust in security systems is the availability of appropriate standards and certificates. Therefore, the development of a recognised pan-European certificate for security solutions is an important objective of the European Union and a key goal of the EU project CRISP (Evaluation and Certification Schemes for Security Products). CRISP’s approach builds on the new S-T-E-Fi concept with four criteria sets: Security, Trust, Efficiency and Freedom infringement. Based on this concept, CRISP has developed a two-step evaluation and certification methodology. The evaluation part includes an assessment of security technologies based on the S-T-E-Fi criteria, while the certification step comprises specific audit, inspection and attestation measures. To consider the different stakeholder needs of such a solution and to begin initial testing of this methodology, the CRISP consortium organised a series of workshops. On this basis, the specified characteristics of the CRISP concept and future activities to implement this new certification scheme are described. After presenting current results of the CRISP project, the paper finishes by explaining the attractiveness of the future CRISP scheme in detail.

Terrorism and the Challenges of Conflict-induced Disasters in Nigeria

Asimiyu Mohammed JINADU

Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria

Terrorism remains a global problem that threatens the peace and economic development of nations. Nigeria has a long history of terrorist activities which have developed into sophisticated armed conflicts and violent terrorism in the contemporary times. This paper examines the nature, dimensions and the humanitarian crises that characterize the aftermath of armed conflict in Nigeria. The study relied on secondary data sources from existing literature and official records. The findings show that land disputes, agitation for compensation, religious intolerance and struggle for political power are among the factors that promote terrorism. The Boko Haram insurgency, Niger Delta militancy, farmer–pastoralists conflicts, inter-communal clashes and Kidnappings are the main strands of terrorism in Nigeria. The various terrorist activities manifest in disasters that bring about destruction lives and properties, infrastructure damage, population displacement and general environmental damage. In year 2010, Benue, Kaduna, Nasarawa, and Plateau States in the Middle Belt of Nigeria lost $2.3 million internally generated revenue (IGR) due to farmer-pastoralists conflicts. Terrorism has destroyed many settlements in the North East, North Central and South East of the country. The 2,152,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) face a lot of humanitarian crises in the IDP camps. Statistics show that a total of 800,000 people are severely food insecure assistance in Borno and Yobe States. One million children are in need of education. Women and children in 25 camps reported lack of safety in the camps. The negative consequences have serious implications for disaster risk management in Nigeria. The paper recommends the use of alternative dispute resolution methods, mass education and reorientation, poverty reduction, social justice and equity, coordinated IDP camp management, provision of permanent emergency shelters and WASH as well as immediate rehabilitation of conflict affected settlements as strategies for reducing terrorism and associated humanitarian crisis in Nigeria.

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