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WED7.3: Disaster and crisis management
Application of FMEA and HFMEA Techniques as Risk Assessment Tools for contingency Planning
1Health Management and economic research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, Islamic Republic of; 2Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Nowadays, most of organizations are interested to design and develop contingency plans for their organizations. Health care organizations are among most critical ones to make reasonable decisions about develop such plans that identify most probable risks, their modes and effects as well as determine appropriate techniques and models as tools for assessing RPNs of risks and prioritize them and design and develop practical and rigor contingency plans to response better during disasters and aftermath. One of most important techniques as " Failure Modes and Effects Analysis " (FMEA) and special version of it for health care organizations " Health Failure Modes and Effects Analysis" (HFMEA) tries to help managers and planners of health sector to be good practitioners in this field. Aim of this session is to train health services managers and hospital CEOs to conceptualize framework of contingency plans as well as improve their capacity for assessing risks and managing them through designing and developing contingency plans for their organizations. comparison between two versions of this technique is also other goal of this session.
Global design compliance and land issues challenges and regulatory barriers
GTFBC Global Task Force Building Codes UNESCO- UNCRD
Country risk analysis and assessment by humanitarian organizations
Action contre la Faim, France
Humanitarian agencies have to tackle hazards and their consequences. Emergency preparedness phase has to be taken into consideration to be able to anticipate and respond accordingly and timely to safe lives while reducing the risk of vulnerable population. Assessing and analyse risks is to make people think about the impacts of hazard that they might have to cope with. While mitigate the risk, Action Contre la Faim (ACF) is preparing its response in advance, by having a deep understanding of the exposure and risks to hazard encountered in the country. Participatory assessment, targeting the most exposed and vulnerable communities, is conducted to have an overview of the population’s perspective, and to identify which coping mechanisms are developed before, during and after a disaster. Country risk analysis contribute to develop early actions, and to create interface between humanitarian response and disaster preparedness. ACF set up an internal tool called “Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan” that is taking amongst others “Country Risk Analysis” issues. The risk will vary according to the magnitude of a hazard, the vulnerability of the populations, and their capacity to respond to it. The “Country Risk Analysis” is a key point to decide which risks ACF should focus on in order to establish an early appropriate response. The objectives are to identify the hazards, classify likelihood of each hazard, categorize factors of vulnerability, identify vulnerable groups, and to identify existing capacities and resources, detect the level of population preparedness, and articulate roles and responsibilities between all stakeholders. Through this approach, ACF is looking forward to ensure a rapid, appropriate, efficient and effective response to save lives in major identified disasters. Moreover, our expectation is to make sure that the most vulnerable people can set up early actions to protect their livelihoods, while being supported by the local institutions.
Features of sea ice disaster in the Bohai Sea in 2010
1State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China; 2Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management, Ministry of Civil Affairs & Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875, China; 3College of Physical and Environmental Oceanography, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China; 4Key Laboratory of Environmental Change and Natural Disaster of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
In 2010, China witnessed the most serious sea ice conditions during the last 30 years, which caused a direct economic loss of more than RMB 6.3 billion yuan, 47.6% of the annual total losses of the marine disaster - sea ice caused one of the main marine disasters of China in 2010. Based on the regional disaster system theory, this article presents an initial analysis of the main characteristics of the sea ice disaster in the Bohai Sea in 2010 by using meteorological data, MODIS image, social economic statistical yearbooks etc. And the outcome proves that the enlargement of the icy area in Laizhou Bay, as a representative of the distribution change of sea ice in the Bohai Sea, is the dominating feature of the increasing regional hazard risk; while the area and output expansion of marine aquaculture around the Bohai Sea is the main feature of the increasing exposure. Thus it could be concluded that the serious disaster in general is the comprehensive outcome of these two factors.
How to measure efficiency in risk prevention?
1Centre for Climate and Safety, Karlstad University; 2Department of Economics, Karlstad university, Sweden; 3Evaluation and Monitoring Department, Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, Karlstad, Sweden; 4Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden
Risk assessment methods form corner stones in the striving to reduce risks and threats to human life and society. Proposed actions can be physical or non-physical and adopted or declined after political evaluation, with consideration taken to available resources and estimated effect on risk. To optimize and avoid regrettable actions, decision-makers are in need of well-founded analyses of how efficient different options might be. Analytically, there are several possible steps that can contribute. Firstly, the correlation between a measure and its effect should be based on causality, which often is difficult to establish quantitatively. High frequent accidents (e.g. traffic) can normally be treated statistically , while low frequent accidents with severe consequences (e.g. natural hazards) are more restricted to qualitative descriptions of correlation. Systematic monitoring of injury and damage data and gathering into databases, are a crucial activity for causality valuation. Secondly, economic valuation of effect is an important contribution in a cost-benefit perspective. Thirdly, a measure often brings several different effects and some may fall outside the actual purpose. An additional problem is how to handle effects that exert varied influence on different stakeholders or social groups in society. Fourthly, certain criteria are required for final prioritization. For instance, in analysis of goal fulfillment, effects are compared with politically decided quantified goals. In cases where basic data from steps 1-3 are incomplete, alternative criteria like “acceptable risk” might be necessary to agree about politically. To use similar approaches on how to describe and quantify effect correlations, promote gathered efforts at local level where risk reducing measures are decided upon by different actors and with regard to diverse local conditions. Tests of suitable methods and approaches to measure efficiency of planned or accomplished actions in gain for risk prevention, are described and discussed.
Reproducing the lakou: the role of vernacular settlement patterns in post-disaster temporary settlements
University of Oregon, United States of America
A primary settlement pattern of the Haitian, Creole culture is the lakou, a spatial manifestation of the familial social structure. The lakou takes the form of a courtyard or compound. This presentation is intended to display the identification and study of the lakou in post-disaster tent cities and transitional settlements, completed through measured drawings, behavior mapping, and interviews. It is conjectured that the methodology will establish the importance of the lakou in community vibrancy and resilience and describe how the lakou adds to the health and resilience of the survivors living in such settlements. I anticipate discovering the importance of this spatial manifestation to be significant to the development of community in a settlement, and speculate its importance to post-disaster planning, enabling a post-disaster settlement to become a successful permanent settlement. The lakou is present in Haitian settlement patterns and is important to the health of Haitian society and culture. I will test the lakou’s importance through a study of post-disaster temporary settlements, showing that through their own devices, endogenous inhabitants create the lakou in post-disaster temporary settlements. I propose that this study will show the need to account for the production of the lakou in the planning of post-disaster temporary settlements in order to maintain the health and vibrancy of the settlement.
SoTech Risks an important context to be taken into consideration
Millennium Enlightened Planners Engineering Company (MEPCO), Iran, Islamic Republic of
According to disaster management context, all those social hazards triggering technological disasters are SoTech in other words hazards which are social based and finally ended up and causes technological disasters as secondary disasters are called SoTechs.Technological risks and any subsequent risks that are triggered or made worse by the impact of social hazards are named SoTech Risks. As we all may know risks not recognized is much more dangerous then uncontrolled risks. Some times in international level there are politicians who try and tend to hide the risks which may effect the people's lives and not speak about them because it threatens their own social and political status.This subject is most important especially when we are speaking about superpowers. In this paper we will at first focus on those social risks which can cause technological disasters and their categories and take into consideration that they can be caused from outside a country, region or whatsoever. Then based on statistics we will show that although some of the SoTech Risks show to cause less casualties and dead people in each event in comparison with NaTech Risks but totally because of the higher weekly or monthly periodically rate of occurrence in relation to frequency. It shall be of higher importance and special actions should be taken into consideration, which one of them is trying to reveal the hidden risks which tend to be hidden. Finally as a conclusion the ways to facing SoTech Risks and reducing their harmful causes which are less in attention, will be suggested as an outcome which can be a good experience for reducing risks.
The role of management information systems to response to crisis management
1Student of the University of Tehran in disaster management; 2PhD, Professor, Scientific Dept of Environment Faculty of Tehran University, Tehran,; 3Student of the University of Tehran in disaster management; 4Student of the University of Tehran in disaster management
The research conducted during the recent disastrous consequences on disasters and extensive live and financial losses from natural disasters in some countries indicated that in most cases there is not preparation to response to confront with crisis and dealing with it has been done in an ineffective and non-scientific way. Nature of crisis management response is such that many other aspects of crisis management are interrelated. If the crisis management has four fundamental bases such as prevention and reduction, preparedness, response and reconstruction, the comprehensive crisis management system should plan and act such that available resources balance the risks. Due to the increasing importance of information and its role in managers’ decision making, it seems using information technology will become more important than the past and perhaps it can surely be stated that no organization in the near future without the use of information systems will be able to deal with changing and competitive environment and can survive in it. Due to the important role of information systems in the quality of managers’ decision making, this paper has tried to express the Relationship between accurate and up-to-the minute data and preciseness of decisions being made by crisis management officials.
Preparing and planning in disaster management
Disaster Management Centre of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka, Democratic Socialist Republic of
Disaster management Center of Sri Lanka is conducting many special planning and preparing programmes for and emergency situations.
Learning from crisis management exercises: a design science approach to exercise evaluation
1Netherlands Institute for Safety (NIFV) – Research Department (The Netherlands); 2Lund University – Lund University Centre for Risk Assessment and Management (LUCRAM) (Sweden); 3Lund University – Training Regions Research Centre (Sweden)
Crisis management exercises are ideally used to test various organisations’ capabilities in a simulated, but realistic, environment. Since real crises and emergencies are not that common, the exercises serve an important purpose by allowing an evaluation of current crisis management capabilities in the absence of real crises. In the presented paper we look more closely at the problem of evaluating crisis management capabilities through exercises. More precisely, how an analytical framework, inspired by design science research, was used to analyze three recent European civil protection exercises. The focus is on how the evaluations of the exercises were performed and the use of three aspects from design science to guide our analysis: context description, level of abstraction and design criteria. We conclude that none of the exercises explicitly considered the impact of context (scenario) variations in their evaluation of the participating organisations’ capabilities. In addition the evaluation of the exercises do not so much analyze the external effect that the participating organizations achieved (i.e. how did the organisations affect the outcome of the exercise?). Furthermore, the evaluations did not explicitly relate the outcome of the exercises to either the purposes of the participating organisations, nor to the purpose of the exercise itself. Finally, the criteria used as a basis for evaluation are in most cases not explicitly expressed and related to the actions taken by the various organizations. This makes it difficult to trace how the result of the evaluation of the exercise is related to the capabilities of the participating organisations. We end the paper by providing some suggestions on how to systematically improve the evaluation of exercises using insights from design science.
National efforts and the challenge of disaster in Nigeria
Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria, Nigeria, Federal Republif of
Nigeria is a country of over 105 million populations with a total land area of 923,768sq km in West Africa. The nation is affected by mainly by flood, fire, epidemics, building collapse and erosion hazards or disasters. Nigeria, like many other developing countries, faces the enormous challenge of preventing, mitigating and managing disasters. At the national level, formal and organized disaster management activities in Nigeria started as far back as 1906 under the Lagos Police Fire Department when the Police Fire Brigade (now Federal Fire Service) started rudimentary disaster management activities such as firefighting, saving of lives and property, and provision of humanitarian services during emergencies. Following from this, the nation has established national institutional and policy frameworks for disaster management and has implemented several management measures. This paper evaluates the disaster management efforts in Nigeria and the findings reveal a mixture of successes and challenges. Amongst others, the achievements recorded include the establishment of national disaster management framework; establishment of COSPAS-SARSAT Mission Control Center for aviation and maritime search and rescue; acquisition of Mi-17 helicopter and equipment for search and rescue operations; capacity building and public education through short training courses, conferences, seminars and workshops; and mainstreaming of disaster management training into the education sector. Despite these efforts, the nation faces the challenges of weak and dysfunctional institutional frameworks; inadequate disaster management infrastructure and equipment; insufficient manpower and low skills of personnel; poor coordination of stakeholders response agencies and lack of effective incident command structure, amongst others. Effective decentralization of disaster management business; investment in disaster infrastructure and equipment maintenance; institutional capacity building and manpower development as well as active engagement of the community-based organizations and the private sector are recommended for effective disaster management in Nigeria.
How specialised research fields of disaster management can be integrated?
Kansai University, Japan
Faculty of Safety Science (FSS) has been established at Kansai University in Japan in 2010 as its 13th faculty. In terms of the name, there is no same faculty or school in Japan. The principle of this faculty is trying to integrate all of safety issues such as natural disaster management and social risk management. On the other hand, in Japan there are around 800 universities and most of these are private universities. However, 40% of the private universities cannot get enough number of students. Hence establishment of new universities or new schools should be understood as not just quantitative expansion but proposing different types of higher education than traditional universities. Before 1995 Kobe earthquake, disaster management in Japan was mainly based on specialised researches, such as physics, engineers. However, after the Kobe earthquake, it was learnt that integration of the specialised researches is needed to improve coping capacity for disasters. Hence after the Kobe earthquake, many research centres or schools for integration of the fields have been established in Japanese universities. However, in reality it is a difficult work to integrate the fields since researches in universities are usually evaluated by traditional way that is specialised evaluation. In this presentation, in order to establish a different type of disaster management through integration of specialised field, a new concept will be proposed as safety science. Based on a practical example, it will be explained that integration between scholarship and practice that is collaboration between academics and the public can be a nexus of integrating specialised fields.
New disaster mangement system in Turkey
Republic of Turkey, Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency, Turkey, Republic of
Today we live in places that are much more vulnerable than the past. Nevertheless the increase in natural hazard risks is the product of our actions during the transformation process of industrial society into ‘risk society’. Turkey’s first disaster law was written in 1959. This law is the first law about natural disasters in Turkey. The main scope of this Law (1959) is to “provide a formal capacity for post-disaster interventions and to organize relief operations”. The law provides extraordinary powers for provincial governors. “When disasters occur, the governor has a sole authority with powers of commanding all public and private and even military resources, property and all vehicles”. Therefore, each governor is responsible for drawing an ‘action plan’ of relief operations to become effective immediately after a disaster. These local action plans, as described by the disaster law and by the recent mandates of the Ministry of the Interior are currently prepared with greater attention since 1999. However, “there is a preparation for ‘tents and blankets operations’ rather than any form of a risk analysis, estimations of losses and a contingency plan for pre-disaster monitoring of forms of mitigation”. Turkey’s disaster management system was mainly focused on the post-disaster period and there were no incentives or legislations to encourage risk analysis or risk reduction approaches before the two catastrophic earthquakes in the year 1999. After these events the disaster management system has been changed. Many new laws, regulations and other instruments on planning and implementation in all phases of a disaster (mitigation, preparedness, response, recovery and rehabilitation) were accepted. In May 2009, with Law No. 5902, three main disaster related organizations, were merged under one umbrella organization in the office of the Prime Ministry and the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency were established (DEMP).
Research on region regularity of disaster chains in Gansu Province China
1School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China; 2Research Laboratory of Regional Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China; 3State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China; 4Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
In Northwest China, Gansu Province is a cross section of the Tibetan Plateau, Inner Mongolia Plateau, Loess Plateau and Xinjiang Arid Regions. Due to complex disaster environments, Gansu suffered from multi-hazards and natural hazard chains frequently. On 7th August 2010, the extreme rainstorm-landslide-debris flow caused 1501 dead and 264 missed in Zhouqu County of South Gansu, which raised both public and scientific attention on natural disaster chains-effect. This paper built and defined approximately 30 different chain-types of Gansu during 60 years based on the Gansu Natural Hazard Database (1949-2010). We found: (1) annually there’re average 1.5 disaster chains in Gansu. They are complex and various because Gansu is a transition zone of multiple geographic units. The common chain-types are rainstorm-hail-flood, rainstorm-snow, flood-waterlogging, snow-frost-cold, and seism-landslide-debris flow. Rainstorm, flood and cold-wave induced chains are the top three with percentage of 68%, 16% and 6% respectively; (2) The occurrences of disaster chains in this region have a large spatial-temporal differentiation. Rainstorm and flood induced chains frequently appear during July and August at the edge of the East Asian monsoon with unstable rainfall, including South Gansu mountain and East Gansu loess plateau. Cold-wave induced chains centralize at East Gansu loess plateau during March and April. Drought chains distribute mainly at East Gansu loess plateau in spring and early summer. Seism chains locate at South Gansu mountains; (3) The case analysis of 2010 Zhouqu disaster chain reveals that damages increased with the vulnerability accumulation of disaster-affected body, and the domino-effects amplified the loss, which often turn into catastrophe; (4) East Gansu loess plateau, South Gansu mountain and Gansu Corridor are the high-risk area, so more attention should be paid in these areas. This paper characterizes natural hazard chains and provides a fundamental reference for the integrated risk governance and regional disaster mitigation.
Building organisational disaster resilience: lessons from Australian bushfire
University of Melbourne, Australia
The project examines disaster resilience as a set of adaptive capabilities, reconceptualising them as institutional adaptation, rather than as solely resistance or persistence. The research undertakes critical analysis using multidisciplinary concepts of resilience, examining institutional learning in the aftermath of catastrophic bushfire disasters. Considerable consensus exists in Australia and internationally that building and sustaining resilience to disasters is critical, given the ongoing threat of bushfires and other large scale natural disasters. For example the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) set resilience as its theme for its Perth 2011 meeting, seeking to recognise the connections between individual, community and institutional resilience with national and global resilience, including its relevance to disasters. Despite this policy support, a long standing problem is that lessons from disasters are often not acted upon, or are not translated from response phases to other aspects that affect resilience. One long-standing barrier to improving disaster resilience is the tendency for agencies to focus on physical aspects of response and recovery. This simultaneously de-emphasises the social location of risk and centralises responsibilities away from the pre-disaster characteristics of communities and associated organisations. Rather, disaster resilience would ideally be an open and inclusive adaptive process across community scales that over time reduced disaster risks and improved capabilities via rich information and learning. This paper reports findings into the Bendigo 2009 bushfire in Australia, examining the responses over time of various agencies in seeking to reduce bushfire risks. It is argued that lessons from past Australian bushfire events are often ignored, particularly by agencies, individuals and groups that are not directly involved in emergency response roles, but who are interconnected with resilience. The key impediments and facilitators to organisational resilience (as adaptation and learning) in the aftermath of the 2009 Victorian bushfires are examined and considered.