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Conference Agenda

Overview and details of the sessions of this conference. Please select a date or room to show only sessions at that day or location. Please select a single session for detailed view (with abstracts and downloads if available).

Session Overview
WED1.5: Critical infrastructures II
Time: Wednesday, 29/Aug/2012: 8:30am - 10:00am
Session Chair: Daniel KULL, World Bank
Session Chair: John HANDMER, RMIT University
Location: Wisshorn



Management of the continuity services in water infrastructure (case study: emergency drinking water management in Tehran metropolitan)

Abdollah MOZAFARI, Seyed Majid JEDDI, Sakineh MOHAMMADI, Gholam Reza JALALI

Tehran Disaster Mitigation and Management Organization (TDMMO), Iran, Islamic Republic of

The earthquake's risk in Tehran metropolitan has been evaluated very high according to the geographical and geophysical situation, active faults around the city and also historical earthquake. An overview on these historical earthquakes in Iran shows that Tehran with the old name Rey has been destroyed with major earthquake several times. Event of an earthquake in Tehran, all the infrastructures like water supply network would have some direct damages. The secondary damages like changes in the water quality, disability of the firefighting stations, and shortage of safe water in hospitals and emergency settlement camp and also providing drinking water are among the greatest challenges after the earthquake. After the earthquake, continuity of water services and recovery network phase is the most important action and the priority goal in subsystems of treatment, storage and distribution and transfer water supply. The demand from drinking water to sanitary use will increase day by day in disaster situation. Regarding Tehran's population that is about 8 million people, "the emergency drinking water management in Tehran metropolitan" for emergency cases definitely needs planning and preparation in advanced. In order to guarantee the consecutive services in water supply network and ensuring of the needed amount of water in any situation, the necessity of a strategy based "Multilayer Water Supply Network (MWSN)" to manage the drinking water in emergency cases is clear. This paper is a case study on Tehran metropolitan based on the population density, existence water network, reservoir and wells distribution, vulnerability of the water network and also the local access which have been used to assess the main need of the water in the first 45 days after the earthquake for 375 Tehran's different boroughs (Mahaleh), using GIS and the methods of emergency water provide.

Comparative risk assessment of energy technologies in the context of energy security and sustainability


Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Switzerland

The energy sector is both a critical infrastructure and an important prerequisite for many economic activities in modern society. The comparative assessment of accident risks is a key aspect in a comprehensive evaluation of energy security and sustainability concerns. The applied framework for comparative risk assessment is based on the objective expression of accident risks for complete energy chains, building upon historical experience available in the Energy-related Severe Accident Database (ENSAD), complemented by simplified probabilistic safety assessment and expert judgment. The analytical scope includes major centralized technologies such as fossil (coal, oil, natural gas), hydro and nuclear energy chains as well as decentralized new renewables (e.g. photovoltaics, wind, geothermal). Results are provided for aggregated indicators such as fatality rates and maximum credible consequences (serving as a proxy for risk aversion), and frequency-consequence (F-N) curves. Additionally, a variety of risk aspects are presented that are not amenable to full quantification yet because only limited data and experience are available or they cannot be fully covered by traditional risk indicators focusing mainly on consequences. Nevertheless, they can play a crucial rule in decision-making processes and policy formulation. Lastly, the impact of various future energy scenarios on the overall accident risk performance is analyzed, and how specific stakeholder preferences may affect the portfolio of potentially available low-carbon technologies.

Sustainable reconstruction of critical infrastructure


Exp Services Inc., Canada / Harvard University

People are more vulnerable to the hazards of natural disasters than ever. Disasters, however offer a unique, though temporary, opportunities for effect change. Incorporating sustainable disaster prevention into reconstruction and recovery planning reduces the world’s vulnerability to such risks. Increasing resilience is imperative. However, no one is immune to the impacts of disaster once it strikes. Planning for risk that may strike at any time, yet occurs infrequently is difficult. It is also complicated to predict accurately the effects of natural disasters.

The physical infrastructure sector is a vital part of all economies. These structures are planned, approved, built and operated according to standards and criteria established by regulatory entities. Critical city infrastructure must be safe post disaster in order to ensure rapid recovery. However, when essential infrastructure is damaged, future re-designing process must take appropriate measures to ensure its resilience. All too often, the reconstruction process is frequently designed to return a city to the conditions of their ‘normal’ pre-disaster state. Thus the city is a breeding ground to risks from future disasters and economic loss.

This presentation will discuss the guiding principles and approaches during the post-disaster recovery phase, based on experiences and lessons learnt by a number of cities and municipalities during the recovery stage. The intent is to provide a framework to model development and share with other cities and municipalities best practices, strategies, tools and methodologies to enhance the resilience of their infrastructure. Furthermore, existing methods for estimating the financial impact of disasters will be discussed. The key is to enhance preparation, response, resilience, and recovery from hazards and disasters affecting the city’s critical infrastructure. Application of a number of emerging technologies available to monitor the various infrastructure elements from the identified potential threats will also be discussed.

A comparison of regular and disrupted operations for route planning in freight transportation

Maximilian BROCK1, Tilman MATTEIS2, Cristina HAYDEN1, Li ZHANG2, Wendelin GROSS1

14flow AG, Germany, Federal Republic of; 2Institute for Economic Policy Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany, Federal Republic of

A case study is carried out in order to display and assess the impact of infrastructural disruptions on a real-life based retail distribution network in Germany. The primary objective is to prove the viability of coupling a model for traffic simulation and one for route planning decision support in order to assess infrastructural disruptions under a risk management viewpoint. A further objective is to work out if a route planning risk management strategy that makes use of unpaired traffic flows is effective to encounter the impacts of infrastructural disruptions on road traffic. In practice route planning has to consider periodic disruptions such as heavy traffic that occur regularly and extreme events that occur seldom but have consequences that are much worse. Regular variability in traffic flow is addressed by drawing route planning decisions in the case of a retail distribution network given a road network with simulated traffic load. For routing vehicles through such a network, we take advantage of unpaired traffic flows in the proximity of agglomerations. Infrastructural disruptions entail a major change in the traffic load. The requirements that route planning has to meet in this situation are detected and corresponding tours are built if possible. Behavior patterns that deviate from mainstream, i.e. adaption of routes, are expected to be helpful in case of emergency as not all road users presumably adapt the delivery tours in response to the extreme event. The performance of a route plan is measured against different criteria in a faultless and in a disturbed network such as punctuality, tardiness and, the fluctuation and thus reliability of arrival times from a transport science point of view. From a managerial point of view service level, overall costs, driving and waiting time are used to analyze different scenarios regarding their impact on the retail company’s performance.

The role of emergency transportation network in crisis management

Fatemeh SALEH

Tehran Disaster Mitigation and Management Organization, Iran, Islamic Republic of Iran

Increasing safety and decreasing casualties and societies financial lost in unforeseen disasters, such as earthquake are among the goals for preparation and development of master plan for urban areas. Determining and developing Emergency Road Network to easy access for the survivors and victims of the disasters in search and relief operation is an important part of the plan. Tehran as a megalopolis, with 700 square kilometers and more than 8 million people (above 11 million in work hour) with vulnerable urban and complex physical features and high population density requires efficient and meaningful disaster management plan including a series of mitigation, preparedness and reliable emergency response plans to identified the possible hazard risks and to could face and manage the disasters in its own area. Cities in different ways have been affected by natural disasters, but urban planners must prepare plans for overcrowding, effective relief operation, Emergency Road Network, and safe emergency evacuation in advance. Identify and improvement of identify emergency roads both in primary and secondary should be carried out fully for preparation to occurrence of disaster. This article tries to introduce the primary study in the city of Tehran for Emergency Road Network system.

Spatio-temporal analyses of the impacts of extreme weather events on renewable energies and advancing local decision-making in climate mitigation concepts

Jeannette SIEBER

European Institute for Energy Research (EIFER), Germany, Federal Republic of

The goal of the presentation is to answer the following research questions: (i) Which regions in Germany (community level) and which kind of Renewable Energies are mostly influences by extreme weather events (EWEs)? (ii)How can they adapt and be adapted to climate change and the increase of EWEs? (iii) How can decision-making on a local level be improved?

By following three main approaches, these questions will be answered. The first step consists of a Geographical Information System (GIS)-based analyses of spatial and temporal distribution of EWEs and Renewable Energies by taking into account statistics of measured extreme events. Therein, measured EWEs and Renewable Energy Units are mapped on a community level using three time slices between 1980 and 2009. The second approach uses a literature review of possible adaptation measures and displays them on the most affected structures. Consequently, there will be a ranking of best practice solutions in the context of climate change. The last point is the transfer of these findings into a decision-support for communes, cities and regions in planning issues. Here, the options of localisation for renewable energies in an adapted manner help to improve the concept of local climate mitigation strategies.

Thus, the presentation will be structured into five sections: (i) the identification of extreme weather events and their impact on electricity infrastructures, (ii) the statistical analyses of the occurrence of EWEs in the years 1980-2009, (iii) the display of electricity infrastructures and EWEs in a spatial and temporal context, (iv) the implementation of adaptation options and (v) the implementation of the results into local climate mitigation strategies. The final discussion will take into account that EWEs are mostly registered in highly populated areas and therefore more rural areas might be underrepresented in the analyses.

Heterogeneous Structural Development in megacities in Iran; a Factor hindering optimal performance of rescue forces in crisis response phase


1INDM Conference (Founder) Iran; 2Master in Technology Management

The 50-year profile of Tehran and other cities in Iran, portraits cities with relatively low-rise, earthquake-prone buildings with neighborhoods in the city center interconnected by quite narrow alleys and streets.

At the same time in most small towns, we can observe neighborhoods with low-rise buildings with yards, interconnected by narrow streets.

In the past fifty years the relief experience in those cities in Iran hit by earthquake has shown that during large scale earthquakes in small towns (such as Tabas 1979, Rudbar 1990 and Bam 2003) most buildings had been razed, but owing to the small height of buildings, it was possible to remove the rubbles and open up connection routes (streets and alleys) with basic equipment while professional rescue teams and ordinary people were also capable of removing rubbles and search for the victims.

With the expansion of Tehran and most Iranian megacities over the last forty years, for a variety of reasons, including rural to urban migration, increasing urban population, the urban planning patterns of Tehran and other major cities have been altered and instead of low-rise buildings with courtyards, high-rise apartment buildings are built, without fundamental improvements in widening alleys and streets.

Poor quality construction materials, lack of building codes, inefficient supervision over Building Code 2800, construction of high-rise construction vulnerable to earthquakes in narrow routes, lack of access to specific equipment (large cranes, loaders and trucks) to open up the congested streets and collapsed bridges, are only a few parameters impeding the performance of relief groups participating in rescue operation during disaster response phase.

This paper aims to identify markers of various urban links (Core/old Zone, Semi-old Zone and New Zone) and provide appropriate solutions for optimal performance of relief and rescue forces based on the requirements of response phase.

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