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Conference Agenda

Overview and details of the sessions of this conference. Please select a date or room to show only sessions at that day or location. Please select a single session for detailed view (with abstracts and downloads if available).

Session Overview
TUE5.6: Critical Infrastructures I
Time: Tuesday, 28/Aug/2012: 2:40pm - 4:10pm
Session Chair: John ZEPPOS, COSMOTE Mobile Telecommunications S.A.
Session Chair: Asimiyu Mohammed JINADU, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
Location: Seehorn


Session Abstract


Strategic risk management by a roads provider


Swiss Federal Roads Office (FEDRO), Switzerland

The goal of the presentation is to give an overview of how FEDRO's infrastructure division identifies, monitors and manages its strategic risks. It primarily deals with technical and environmental risks, and touches on some societal risks. Reference is made to two complementing presentations FEDRO proposes, which look at two specific risk categories of FEDRO's, viz natural hazards and dangerous goods transport.

The Infrastructure division of the Swiss federal roads office is in charge of constructing, maintaining and operating the Swiss motorway network. Its goals are: to complete the network, to identify weak points, to secure the availability, to maintain the functional capacity, to secure operational maintenance, and to preserve the substance and value.

The goal of the strategic risk assessment is to detect risks, which may prevent the Division from reaching the above-mentioned goals, to monitor their development and to develop mitigating measures if necessary. In addition, a comparison is made with risk assessments carried out in earlier years to find out whether risks change in significance and whether mitigating measures were successful or need to be adjusted.

The presentation will look at how risks are identified, classified (technical/institutional/environmental as well as reputational risks) and assessed (impact/probability). The strategic risks the Division has currently on its monitoring list include: under staffing, corruption, uncoordinated building sites, natural hazards, dangerous goods transport, lacking maintenance and lacking project control due to outsourcing. These risks will be presented together with the corresponding mitigating measures. Finally, an outlook will be given on how we intend to improve the integration of our operative, project-based risk management into our strategic risk management.

Prevention of major accidents in road transportation of dangerous goods

Adrian Robert GLOOR

ASTRA, Switzerland

As within the EU by the Seveso Directive, the protection of the public and the environment from serious damage in Switzerland is based on the directive on the prevention of major accidents. Unlike the EU, the Swiss legislation also includes transportation of dangerous goods on traffic routes (railways, roads, marine). Aside from companies handling hazardous materials the Swiss regulation thus requires in particular also owners of traffic routes, which serve the transport of dangerous goods to investigate the possi-ble risks and to take all safety measures that are appropriate to reduce the risks. Road owners, such as FEDRO, apply a two-stage investigation process. The first step considers the probability of a possible event on the basis of summary data on traffic- and road conditions and the environment of a section. The evaluation of the results is presented in the form of a probability-consequence chart, which is based on a set of typical standard scenarios covering fire-, explosion- and release of toxic gas events. It represents the risk situation in a semi quantitative manner. The first step indicates whether the identfied risks are acceptable or not; that means, whether the existing safety measures are sufficient to reduce the risks to a satisfactory level. If not, a second in-depth study is necessary, which includes the elaboration of a quantitative risk analysis taking in account all available data with the highest possible precision and substance-related dispersion models. If the second step confirms the estimated risks of the first study, further safety measures outside of the standard regulations for road buildings have to be developed and implemented. These studies have been applied by the FEDRO on the Swiss national roads; normally associated with the development and scheduled maintenance of road sections. In the presentation, the main results of the investigations will also be presented.

Measuring performance functionality of roads after earthquake


1M.Sc of transportation planning , Islamic Azad University -South Tehran branch, Iran, Islamic Republic of; 2Assistant professor, Faculty of environment, University of Tehran, Iran; 3Member of Scientific board, Logistic & Disaster Management Dept, Road & Building & Urban Development Research Center Ministry of Road & Urban Development

Earthquake is amongst natural hazards which lead to distraction in the function of traffic lifelines. Road networks are exposed to high vulnerability due to geographical dispersion, extensive functions and structural reliability to geophysics.

There have been drawn some uncertain relationships based on limited studies made on the area of road functionality after earthquake. These researches are usually defined based as a function of physical deterioration of road with the main assumption of indirect relationship between quantity of deterioration and traffic functionality. But the experience shows that under real conditions this presumption would not be true, while serviceability and full disruption of traffic flow depends on road shape of destruction. As in the case of a medium physical deterioration, provided that deterioration of transversal road elements, the path would become fully blocked. Therefore, consideration of deterioration area results in false interpretation of road functional performance.

This research demonstrates a method of measuring independent quantity of roadways functional performance in the aftermath of an earthquake, this way, the observed amount of deterioration based on path dividing and consideration of sections attachment leads to a more exact feedback of roadways function. The clear formulation of road damage would be done by computing a width of sections that remains undamaged in route and still have transfer ability for the traffic flow. Hence it could be determined the traffic flow conduction and sections continuity which is a function of road capacity.

Risk assessment of the buried fuel pipelines in the City of Kermanshah, Iran


Young researchers Club, Iran, Islamic Republic of

Iran is one of the most seismically active countries in the world, being crossed by several major fault lines that cover at least 90% of the country. As a result, earthquakes in Iran occur often and are destructive. Lifelines such as fuel pipeline systems are geographically dispersed over broad areas, and are exposed to a wide range of seismic and geotechnical hazards, community uses, and interactions with other sectors of the built environment. This paper, in respect of damage analysis, concentrates on the assessment of fuel pipeline systems buried underneath the city of Kermanshah, leakage and failure in pipelines and post-earthquake fires. Assessment of the seismic damage to buried fuel pipelines of Kermanshah is calculated for three probable scenario earthquakes in the study area. After hazard analyze, using the repair rate relations, damage to pipelines is estimated. All the steps of damage assessment for buried pipelines were written in a GIS environment. Finally, the probability distribution function for the area, the population and the number of houses exposed to fire and explosion after the earthquake are calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation method through numerous repetitions (10,000 times). Finally two proposed hardening strategies for fire damage reduction in the Kermanshah area are investigated in the second stage and the damage is investigated by repeating the process.

Risk concept for natural hazards on motorway in Switzerland

Philippe ARNOLD

FEDRO, Switzerland

The Swiss Federal Roads Office (FEDRO) has initiated a programme to analyse, assess and manage the risks associated with gravity induced natural hazards (rockfalls, landslides, avalanches, as well as floods and debris flows) on the motorway network in Switzerland. In a first step, the methodological background was developed in order to guarantee transparent and standardised hazard and risk assessment, as well as cost-efficient and cost effective management of the identified risks.

Based on this methodology, the entire motorway network is now being assessed

The hazard analysis assesses natural hazards in terms of their probability and extent. The methodology ensures that the scenarios are defined on the basis of uniform and transparent criteria. This is based on an evaluation of historical events, an examination of statistical data, the incorporation of indicators in the field, an assessment of predisposition in the area and an assessment of existing protective measures and the protection provided by forest. Based on the hazard formation the affected areas are filtered out and represented in the form of intensity maps.

All risks are converted into a monetary value.

The risk assessment examines whether the identified risks are acceptable or not. Furthermore, the methodology shows which criteria are used as a basis for setting priorities for planning measures. Processes and criteria are defined that make it possible to scrutinise measures and combinations of measures that minimise risks in terms of costs and benefits.

The first stretches of motorway have meanwhile been assessed. In each case the findings obtained on site were documented on phenomenon maps and the impacts on the respective motorway stretches were presented in the form of intensity maps. The findings are very positive, but they also shed light on certain specific characteristics of motorway network analyses.

USA building code changes resulting from 9/11 attacks

William Gene CORLEY

CTLGroup, United States of America

Although commercial buildings cannot be designed to survive impact from the largest aircraft and still be commercially viable, the 9/11 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City disclosed several places where building codes could be improved to increse surviveability of occupants in extreme events. The American Society of Civil Engineers and Federal Emergency Management Agency carried out an investigation, headed by the author, of building performance of the twin towers after the 9/11 attacks. This was followed by an extensive research study by NIST. Based on the ASCE/FEMA and NIST studies, a large number of building standards changes were recommended. This paper describes the attacks, indicates how the towers collapsed, summarizes the recommended standards changes and presents those changes that have been made to date. The impact on building safety during extreme events is discussed.

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