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Conference Agenda

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Session Overview
THU5.2: Integrative flood risk management
Time: Thursday, 30/Aug/2012: 2:40pm - 4:10pm
Session Chair: Markus ZIMMERMANN, SDC
Location: Flüela



management of flood risks at the city of Tabuk

Ayman Hassan AL-MOMANI

University of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of

This study discusses the assessment and management of flood risks at the city of Tabuk, ‎initiatives taken by the government to mitigate the damages, the successes and failures of ‎these initiatives, and the most recent developments in disaster risk management towards saver ‎city. In this respect, GIS, digital elevation model (DEM), aerial photographs and aeromagnetic ‎data sets used as a helpful tool of data analysis.‎

A great benefit of the method applied in this paper is the possibility of conducting subsequent ‎analyses with GIS, when incorporation of integrated workflow across the governmental ‎agencies for creating, enhancing, and updating GIS databases that can be easily shared both ‎within and between organizations. This allows planners and citizens to quickly and efficiently ‎create and test alternative development scenarios and determine their likely impacts on land ‎use patterns and associated population and employment trends, thus allowing public officials to ‎make informed planning decisions.‎

This shows the compelling need to increase the municipality’s resilience against flooding ‎through adoption a non-structural disaster reduction schemes to supplement existing efforts. ‎The other important output of this study is to document the current legal, institutional, and ‎organizational arrangements, the status of community participation in flood management with ‎particular reference to information on flood forecasting and warning, risk management, coping ‎practices of the community and assistance provided by government. This kind of investigation ‎would enable planners and policymakers to evolve a strategy to solve similar problems ‎elsewhere. The results obtained could be useful about the decision makers, risk analysts and ‎safety measures in the future similar situations.‎

Are private flood mitigation measures successfully contributing to contemporary integrated flood risk management in Germany?

Philip BUBECK1,2, Wouter BOTZEN2, Heidi KREIBICH1, Jeroen AERTS2

1German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), Potsdam, Germany; 2Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Flood risk is projected to increases in many places due to the effects of climate change and the on-going intensification of human activities in risk-prone areas. These projections and the considerable uncertainties associated with these developments increasingly require integrated approaches in flood risk management in Europe. In addition to traditional flood protection, the latter also aim at reducing the potential consequences of floods, amongst others, by means of flood mitigation measures implemented by private households. In Germany, the responsibility of private households to contribute to damage reduction was increasingly integrated in flood risk management in response to major floods in 1993 and 1995 along the Rhine and in response to the disastrous 2002 Elbe flood. However, even though non-structural measures have become an integral component of contemporary flood risk management, knowledge on them is still limited. This concerns in particular socio-economic and perceptual factors that possibly influence flood mitigation behaviour, the temporal and spatial spread of damage mitigation measures among flood-prone households as well as their effectiveness and cost-efficiency. Insights into these aspects are crucial for determining the efficiency of contemporary flood risk management. In our presentation, we will provide an in-depth overview on these aspects, drawing information from empirical data of computer-aided telephone surveys among 752 flood-prone households along the Rhine. For instance, we find that in addition to flood experience, the social environment and flood-coping appraisals are important factors that influence precautionary behaviour. The obtained insights will be used to provide recommendations to successfully manage the transition to integrated flood risk management concepts.

Analyzing the urban functions to prioritize urban flood resilient actions

Damien SERRE1, Serge LHOMME1, Marie TOUBIN1, Youssef DIAB1, Richard LAGANIER2

1EIVP, France; 2Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité

The behavior of the civil engineering infrastructures, and their interactions during a flood event, will have consequences on the flood risk level in the built environment. By civil engineering we include on one hand the flood defenses, able to increase the flood risk in case of failures, on the other hand the urban technical networks able to spread the flood risk in cities.

From history, most of cities in the world have been built close to coast lines or to river to beneficiate this means of communication and trade. Step by step, to avoid being flooded, defenses like levees have been built. The capacity of the levees to retain the floods depends on their conditions, their performance level and the capacity of the authorities to well maintain these infrastructures.

Then, in case of levee break, cities will be flooded. The urban technical networks, due to the way they have been designed, their conditions and their locations in the city, will play a major role in the diffusion of the flood extent. Also, the flood risk will have consequences in some not flooded neighborhoods due to networks collapses.

Firstly we will describe the methods we are using to determine the performance level of flood defenses and the level or resilience of the urban networks with three specific capacities (resistance, absorption and recover). Secondly an integrated spatial decision support system will be presented through one application in a European city. As a result, recommendations for prioritizing flood resilient actions will be made.

Flood risk management with limited data – case study Han River, China

Christian WILLI1, Juerg ELSENER METZ1, Walter MEYER2

1Ernst Basler + Partner, Switzerland; 2Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Beijing

Authorities responsible for flood control and protection urgently need an overview on the expected flood risks on their territory. They seek for cost-effective measures to reduce the risks significantly. Generally, risk assessment requires detailed data, often only partially available. A pragmatic approach to risk assessment therefore is an adequate alternative. In an interactive process – during consultations and workshops performed among relevant stakeholders, decision makers and locals – estimates and results for crucial issues are developed. This process is substantially supported by the online IT-tool RiskPlan, which is widely used in Switzerland and abroad. Within a Sino-Swiss partnership including the Ministry of Water Resources China, the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) and Ernst Basler and Partner (EBP), the RiskPlan approach is tested in the Han River catchment, Hubei Province, China. Currently only rough data to hazard and damage potential are available. The risk situation has been analysed in a consultation in Wuhan, using the knowledge and experience of flood expert partners of the Changjiang Water Resources Commission (CWRC). RiskPlan is promoting the risk dialogue among the experts. Based on the local knowledge and available data, four scenarios, their frequency and expected damages have been estimated applying a participative process. The total yearly expected damage for the damage indicators fatality, material damage and agriculture damage have been assessed, monetised and aggregated, expressed in Chinese Yuan (CNY). The generated flood risks in the Han River catchment contributes to the integrated flood risk management. The need for action is identified, a priority setting is enabled. Additionally, RiskPlan allows the economic assessment of flood protection measures regarding cost-benefits. As the impact of extreme weather events grows in China, floods and droughts being among the major factors, integrated flood risk management becomes an urgent necessity.

A preliminary study of flash flood in Hunan Province, China - spatio-temporal characteristics, trends and risk management

Jian FANG, Juan DU, Wei XU, Peijun SHI

Beijing Normal University, China, People's Republic of

Flood risk management has always been a great concern in China and huge resources has been invested on the construction of flood-defending systems. After decade years of continuous efforts, most of the major rivers in China have been effectively regulated and the threat from traditional river flooding has been greatly reduced. While as a result of increasing frequency of extreme rainfall events and high vulnerability of small catchments in mountainous area, flash flood has become more and more severe and been the most lethal type of flood. According to statistics, from 2000 to 2009 annual deaths caused by flash flood accounted for about 80% of total flood-related deaths in China. Hunan Province, located in Central China, is characterized with mountainous areas in the south and southwest parts and intensive precipitation in summer due to the east Asian monsoon and typhoon system. As a result, Hunan is highly exposed and vulnerable to flash flood with hundreds of deaths and millions RMB Yuan of losses every year. It is urgent to fully investigate flash flood risk in Hunan Province and take effective measures to minimize the loss. This study investigates the spatio-temporal variation of flash flood in Hunan Province with the dataset of flash flood events and losses from local bureau of civil affairs to indicate the most vulnerable place and time to flash flood. Then meteorological data associated with flash flood events are analyzed to construct the probability distribution of precipitation triggering the hazard. Statistical methods are used to detect the trend of precipitation in the season of flash flood, and based on the distribution of threshold precipitation the risk of flash flood is assessed. Finally, we discuss alternative risk management strategies of flash flood in Hunan Province, highlighting the importance of non-structural measures.

Chronicling and mapping the physical and social components of the 2009 flood disaster and the disaster risk reduction initiatives of urban poor communities in Metro Manila, Philippines

Doracie Baldovino ZOLETA-NANTES1, Simeona MARTINEZ2, Rocelyn DE VERA3, Paulo CAPARAS4, Mart Cyrel GERONIA5, Marie Joyce ILAGAN6, Neil Eneri TINGIN7

1Crawford School of Public Policy, RMAP, College of Asia and the Pacific-The Australian National University, Australia; 2Geography Department, University of the Philippines, Quezon City; 3Geography Department, University of the Philippines, Quezon City; 4Geography Department, University of the Philippines, Quezon City; 5Geography Department, University of the Philippines, Quezon City; 6Geography Department, University of the Philippines, Quezon City; 7Geography Department, University of the Philippines, Quezon City

Strengthening resilience to flood risks among urban poor communities can benefit from community mapping of flood risks, social vulnerabilities and grassroots-initiated disaster reduction initiatives. With research funding from Christian Aid and the Manila Observatory, researchers from the University of the Philippines’ Department of Geography had engaged in chronicling the physical-geographical-economic and social causes of flooding in five urban poor settlements and mapped the land use changes on river banks (20 m easement) and the constriction and disappearance of creeks and waterways in Metro Manila, Philippines. The maps of flood depths that were experienced by residents of urban settlements on the river banks illustrated the extent of devastation of the floods that greatly paralyzed population movements and economic activities in the metropolis and adjacent provinces in Luzon. The unplanned conversions of river banks into concrete spaces due to the rapid urbanization of Metro Manila and several towns in adjoining Rizal and Laguna Provinces were directed related to the widespread floods that were brought about by tropical storm Ketsana (Typhoon Ondoy – Philippine local name) in 2009. In-depth interviews among local government officials and men and women in affected urban communities were held to relate their flood experiences, evacuation strategies and disaster risk reduction initiatives from 2009 onwards. The resulting data bases were incorporated into the risk assessment initiatives of the affected urban poor communities to reduce their vulnerabilities to floods. The data bases were shared with the members of the affected communities to provide them with information that they can use to increase their resilience to flood disasters. Inundation events are projected to recur more frequently because of the changing patterns and intensification of extreme weather events in the Philippines due to global atmospheric warming.

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