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Conference Agenda

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Session Overview
TUE1.6: Integrative tsunami risk management
Time: Tuesday, 28/Aug/2012: 8:30am - 10:00am
Session Chair: Sam.S.L HETTIARACHCHI, University of Moratuwa
Session Chair: Christopher G BURTON, GEM Global Earthquake Model
Location: Sanada 1



Development of tsunami disaster response system in Korea

Hyoung Seong PARK, Sung Jin HONG, Dong Seag KIM

National Disaster Management Institute, Korea, Republic of

The purpose of this study is to develop the tsunami disaster response system using hazard mapping techniques for the east coast of Korea. Several methods are used for this purpose. The highly populated and potentially dangerous areas of the east coast have been selected and the test was performed on 14 different study areas to establish tsunami disaster response system and hazard mapping. The existing tsunami response measures are analyzed including shelters, evacuation methods and maps; and surveys are done for the climate, population and land-use on the selected zones. Topography and bathymetry data are acquired and processed for numerical modeling, through which a total of 77 hazard maps are prepared estimating tsunami in 7 magnitudes (M7.4~M8.0) from 11 seismic zones for each study area. As a result, tsunami hazard maps are prepared on the east coast region which is capable to provide fast and accurate response to tsunamis. The conclusions are: 1) selection of the study area for tsunami hazard mapping, 2) tsunami counter-measures are analyzed for project study area, 3) establishment of detailed topographical information and grid systems (4.5 m resolution) in the coastal zone, 4) inundation characteristics are analyzed for each study area, 5) tsunami hazard maps are prepared for each study area. The 'tsunami disaster response system' developed by this study will be prepared as comprehensive decision making system for tsunamis and will be utilized as disaster prevention system for anticipative response against disasters by central and local governments; and especially, will be utilized as the system for evacuation of residents and disaster management.

Integrating science with practice to advocate tsunami risk reduction interventions

Manuela DI MAURO1, Jonathan GRIFFIN2, Agus WIBOWO3, Brian TUCKER4, Kusnowidjaja MEGAWATI1,5

1Earth Observatory of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; 2Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction, Indonesia; 3Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (National Disaster Management Agency, BNPB), Indonesia; 4GeoHazards International, California; 5Civil and Environmental Ingeneering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Integration between research and practice, partnerships among experts and decision makers are among the priorities of the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015. This paper describes a ‘success story’ demonstrating how collaboration among research and practitioners can produce high-quality science targeted to disaster risk reduction, providing the government with strong basis for decision making.

The Sunda Megathrust is a major fault running along a large part of Indonesia and was the source of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Evidence shows that an earthquake of magnitude 8.9-9 is likely along the Sunda Megathrust within the next few decades. This can generate a tsunami that would inundate Padang, West Sumatra, where c. 900,000 people live, reaching the city in less than 30 minutes. During the April 11 2012 earthquake, which did not generate a large tsunami, the warning was disseminated 30 minutes after the earthquake. The roads were gridlocked by traffic jams, trapping people for hours.

In response to this event, the Indonesian Government tasked the Indonesian National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) to develop a Master Plan for managing Indonesia’s tsunami risk. This was seen by the Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction, the Earth Observatory of Singapore and GeoHazards International as a unique opportunity to join efforts and support BNPB. Specifically to provide rigorous evidence for inclusion of vertical evacuation structures in Indonesia’s tsunami management strategy, paying particular attention to the visualisation of the outcomes targeted for communication to specific Government audiences.

This paper aims to: provide examples of interventions for tsunami risk reduction; disseminate further the issue faced by the West-Sumatran communities; and demonstrate the effectiveness and necessity of integrating the work of scientists, government and international organisations. Through this collaboration, the scientific message has been targeted to the needs of policy makers, providing them with rigorous evidence to support decision making.

Risk, altruism and resilience in post-tsunami Indonesia: a gendered perspective


1University of Reading, United Kingdom; 2University of Durham, United Kingdom

This paper aims to analyze whether or not risk attitudes and pro-social behaviour display systematic differences by gender in the context of disasters and the implications of this for community resilience. With such an aim, this research challenges the standard view of resilience in mainstream economics where the term is often used in a manner synonymous with the notion of “bouncing back” and it implies the capability to return to a previous state of equilibrium. This usage captures neither the reality of disaster experience nor its full implications. Thus, this paper is structured around the idea that the post-disaster recovery phase will present community members with a new reality that may differ in several fundamental ways from that prevailing pre-disaster. It is the changed reality (whether from the disaster itself or the societal response to it) that men and women must adapt to. By using a field experiment on gender behaviour in post-tsunami Indonesia (Aceh and Nias), this paper argues that gender structures, reflected in gendered norms and practices, give rise to systematic gender differences in the perception of risk and altruism and provide an insight into resilience. In conclusion, the arguments about gender, risk perception and altruism are brought together in a theoretical model which might serve as a starting point to understand how women’s actual caring responsibilities and risk attitudes are relevant to foster a culture of resilience after disasters.

Tsunami awareness in Bander Chabahar, south of Iran

Yasamin O. IZADKHAH1, Nasser H. ZAKER2, Bibielham FAKHRI BAFGHI2

1International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES) Iran, Islamic Republic of; 2Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran

This paper presents the assessment and evaluation of the people's knowledge and awareness of tsunami disaster in city of Bandar Chabahar in southeast Iran. Bandar Chabahar is the largest coastal city of Iran in the Northern part of the Sea of Oman, adjacent to Makran Subduction Zone. Makran Subduction Zone is one of the most tsunamigenic sources in the Indian Ocean and historically has generated some tsunamigenic earthquakes such as 28 November 1945 with the death toll of more than 4000 people along the coasts of Iran, Pakistan, India, and Oman. Questionnaires were distributed to three various groups of respondents including: residents, school children and governmental officials. The data have been collected by field technique through simple random sampling. Data were also collected through face to face interviews and library studies. The results showed the lack of awareness and enough knowledge of the people in the region, especially women. However, among the people in the region, students had a higher level of knowledge and awareness about tsunami. In the meantime, the high level of public interest and concern to learn and acquire knowledge about tsunami were very noticeable. At the end, the results showed that the most effective methods that can be proposed for the public awareness in the study area include: teaching about disasters in schools is important, so that children can transfer the appropriate messages to their families; broadcasting educational programs about tsunamis and earthquakes through mass media; and disseminating community based programs through religious centers with regard to the cultural background of the region.

Tsunami hazard mapping through characteristic analysis of inundation

Dong Seag KIM, Hyoung Seong PARK, Sung Jin HONG

National Disaster Management Institute, Korea, Republic of

The purpose of this study is to develop the tsunami hazard map by analyzing the characteristic of coastal inundation on the east coast of Korea.

Normally, Korea is considered as safe to have Japan as a barrier of the Pacific tsunami disaster. Indeed it is not safe because there is a long seismic zone along the western coast of Japan in the East Sea. So far five tsunamis were observed in Korea such as Kanpo tsunami 1741, Shankotan tsunami 1940, Niigata tsunami 1964, Central East Sea tsunami 1983, and Hokkaido southwestern tsunami 1993. Among them the Central East Sea tsunami 1983, and Hokkaido southwestern tsunami cost casualties and property damages in the east coast including Kangwon province of Korea.

In this study, probable tsunamis are investigated by analysis of seismic zone in the East Sea. Hypothetical tsunami scenarios are developed to analysis characteristic of inundation and to establish tsunami hazard map on the eastern coast of Korea. Characteristics of tsunami inundation are analyzed for the study areas based on numerical simulation results using different scenarios. According to the analysis of tsunami inundation, tsunami energy trend to concentrate in the eastern coast of Korea due to bathymetric features of the East Sea. Also tsunami height is calculated up to 12 meters above M.S.L.

Finally, tsunami hazard maps are developed based on the analysis of inundation for the study area. It is possible that inundation area, evacuation routes, shelters selection are easily established by the development of tsunami hazard map. If tsunami is generated in the East Sea, it is possible for residents to evacuate safely from dangerous area. In the normal situation, tsunami hazard map can be used as the references of education and promotion for the disaster reduction and prevention under the risk assessment and disaster prediction.

Tsunami risk assessment and management - case studies from Sri Lanka


University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka, Democratic Socialist Republic of

The island state of Sri Lanka was severely affected by the Indian Ocean Tsunami leading to the loss of life, damage to infrastructure and unique eco-systems. It was evident that some cities were severely affected by the tsunami in view of their increased exposure arising from coastline geometry. In particular cities located within bays and around headlands were subjected to extensive damage due to concentration of wave energy. This included principal coastal cities along the south and eastern coasts of Sri Lanka. For purpose of coastal rehabilitation, conservation and mitigation it was decided to conduct detailed risk assessment and management studies. The said studies were conducted within a multiple hazard framework to develop integrated risk management solutions, following the Tsunami Risk Assessment Guidelines produced by the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System. Arising from these studies measures were to be identified for (1) mitigating the tsunami hazard (reducing the impact of the tsunami wave); (2) reducing the exposure and vulnerability; (3) enhancing preparedness and evacuation; (4) improving community resilience. The paper presents a summary of the investigative studies conducted for Risk Assessment and Management along the coast of Sri Lanka and focusing in particular on the city of Galle. The paper will highlight the following: (1) Summary of the investigative studies carried for risk assessment; (2) approach adopted for risk assessment in the context of hazard (both deterministic and probabilistic hazard modeling), vulnerability and capacity; (3) application of risk management measures in the form of community preparedness, evacuation maps, evacuation zones and shelters; (4) mitigation measures with respect to coast conservation via bio-shields, artificial methods including the development of tsunami breakwaters as part of strategic port development; (5) the development of building codes for new construction, enhancing the strength of existing buildings and their field applications.

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