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WED1.2: European critical infrastructures: which analysis framework for supporting effective decision making?
Session organized by the Joint Research Centre
European critical infrastructures: which analysis framework for supporting effective decision making?
Joint Research Centre, European Commission
In the last decade, Europe started a number of initiatives for the protection of critical infrastructures. These initiatives are collected under the European Programme for Critical Infrastructure Protection, a multi annual program elaborated in 2006 by the Justice and Home Affairs council. One of the legislative pillars of EPCIP is the European Council Directive 2008/114/EC, which sets the scope of critical infrastructure to the energy and the transportation sectors and it also defines the common criteria for identification and designation of European Critical Infrastructure (ECI) and the assessment of the need to improve their protection.
A resilience based analysis framework for critical infrastructures protection
Joint Research Centre, Italy, Republic of
Critical Infrastructures are essential for supporting everyday functions of modern societies. These functions depend on an extensive network of infrastructures that nowadays are highly connected, forming a complex mesh of interdependencies which facilitate exchange of services of various forms. The benefits from networking are accompanied by new threats and risks. In particular, disruptions in certain infrastructures can cause rippling effects that may render unstable the whole network.
Critical infrastructure disruptions: a generic system dynamic approach for decision support
11Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, Institute for Nuclear and Power Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany, Federal Republic of; 2Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, Institute for Industrial Production, Karlsruhe, Germany, Federal Republic of
Our daily life highly depends on the smooth operation of critical infrastructures (CIs) such as energy supply, information and communication, banking and finance, emergency services and transportation systems. CI failures can have catastrophic consequences. For instance, a severe storm with heavy snowfall led to a large-scale power breakdown in Germany in autumn 2005. The incident caused high economic losses and had serious impacts on the health sector and, transportation. Crisis management for CI failures is a challenge for decision makers, as CIs are highly interlaced. Since CI disruptions are rare, the knowledge about how CI disruptions can develop over time is limited. The effects to the CI network may extinguish or increase over time. These developments are not addressed in static approaches, which are often used to model CI disruptions. Crisis managers are under considerable pressure to manage these disruptions. For effective and efficient decision support a transparent analyses of the dynamic development of CI disruptions are needed. Our presentation demonstrates how a holistic system dynamics approach can be used to facilitate strategic decisions in the management of CI disruptions. System dynamics is a method that is designed to understand complex systems and to analyze the impact of a decision over time. By combining the analyses’ results with visualization tools, the understanding of the situation’s development can be enhanced. Our approach covers all CI sectors and subsectors to generate an overview of how the impact of a disruption propagates through the CI network. By using a holistic approach multiple alignments to different CI disruption scenarios are possible. This enables crisis managers to plan response strategies. The presentation illustrates our work to support CI disruption management and discusses the opportunities and limits of our approach. Additionally, feedback elicited in an expert workshop is presented and directions for future research are outlined.
Security and safety of cross-border infrastructure
1SiTI - Istituto Superiore sui Sistemi Territoriali per l'Innovazione, Italy, Republic of; 2Lamoro - Langhe Monferrato Roero, Italy, Republic of
Typical cross-border infrastructures are transport communication networks and high voltage electricity transmission grids. These infrastructures represent a strategic economic, social and environmental asset and their loss or even temporary failure may imply relevant impacts on health and welfare of people. As a consequence, cross-border infrastructures must be protected against multiple threats, typically classified into natural (landslides, floods, etc.) and human threats (sabotage, accidents, etc.). A possible approach to improve cross-border infrastructures security and safety consists of three phases. Firstly, cross-border infrastructures must be identified and characterized in terms of assets, vulnerabilities, critical points, resources, threats, protocols, also through a strong interactions with local bodies and authorities. Secondly, the collected information has to be filled in a cross-border database, with the object to make available to stakeholders an integrated and geo-referenced information platform to be constantly consulted and updated. The third and final step consists of developing a risk and vulnerability assessment methodology (RVA), in order to evaluate immediate impacts as well as long-term consequences when a single cross-border infrastructure is compromised, and to evaluate the efficiency and the effectiveness of protocols, resources, instruments and equipment to deal with identified security threats. RVA must then be tested in different case studies (cross-border infrastructures related to energy and mass transport) and refined, also conducting simulations to assess the cross-border operational capability to prevent threats and/or to mitigate consequences. At the end of the validation process, RVA can provide managers and authorities with a decision-making support tool to plan adequate security investment policies and to enhance the efficiency of security protocols, technologies and measures. This paper shows an innovative approach followed by SiTI and Lamoro in North Western Italy across the boundary between Italy and France, simulating a complex system also allowing for a detailed analysis of applicable laws and procedures.
Decision making for resilience in critical infrastructure governance
Center for Security Studies, ETH, Zurich, Switzerland
The growing interconnectedness of global society has increased the number and complexity of services supporting society, and has increased societal sensitivity to disturbances that might threaten the delivery of those services. Critical infrastructure provides and supports many key services that globalised society depends on, and ensuring these infrastructures are secure and ‘resilient’ has become an important goal, both in the public and private sectors. This paper explores what critical infrastructure resilience might mean, and outlines a methodology to investigate how decision makers could systematically incorporate resilience into critical infrastructure security-related policy decision making and practice.