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Conference Agenda

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Session Overview
Session
TUE7.3: Mountain risks
Time: Tuesday, 28/Aug/2012: 6:10pm - 7:30pm

Poster Session


Presentations

Feasibility studies for optimum establishment of rural at risk of natural disasters

Ali PANAHI1, Mahmoud ELMI1, Shabnam TAJBAKHSHSHISHVAN2

1Department of human science, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran; 2Islamic azad univercity, Iran, Islamic Republic of

Landslide is a natural disaster which mainly occurs in mountainous regions, suddenly destroys the morphology and cause major damages to residential areas, roads, agricultural lands, etc.

Present paper besides introducing Peydeldel village landslide, also discusses main causes of ranges instability. The most important factors of landslide in Peydeldel village are namely: non-normative construction on steep slopes, undercutting ranges by two spring and entrance of domestic wastewater into it, locating on a 15 to 35 percent slope, relatively high ground-water level, especially on the eastern valley edge of village, Existence of river on the East of the sliding mass and water seepage into it. Since village displacement was not welcomed by villagers, it is suggested that by considering characteristics of site and constructing light weight structures, in preparing guide plan for village, eastern part should be extracted from plan.


Building resilience and reducing vulnerability through integrated risk management in mountain areas

Farrukh Salim LALANI, Rukhshona BROIMSHOEVA

FOCUS Humanitarian, Tajikistan, Republic of

Mountain communities are faced with multiple risks impacting their overall economic health. This include underdeveloped water irrigation resource management, increased natural hazard threats, physical isolation, extreme poverty and others. Effective interventions therefore must address all dimensions - environmental, social and institutional. FOCUS is implementing a regional three years cross-border project in cooperation with Hilfswerk Austria International and funded by European Union, “Poverty Alleviation through Mitigation of Integrated high mountain Risk” (PAMIR). The goal of the project is to understand the linkages between environment, disaster risk and poverty. The project will conduct risk assessment of 120 bordering communities in Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan reaching over 40,000 people. Particular focus will be on the remote geo-hazards and their possible impact. Examples of such include lake Shiva, which should it break has the potential to wiping say communities on both side of the border. The project takes a multi-step approach to identify risks, generate risk knowledge through risk modeling to help determine priority communities, build capacity to remote hazards and ultimately reduce vulnerability. The project seeks to bring to government agencies, donors, international agencies and the community to integrate environmental sustainability into development strategies and the national action plan. It is considered important to involve stakeholders at all levels and raise awareness on linkages between environmental protection, disaster risk reduction and sustainable livelihood among political decision-makers and donor agencies.


New approaches for integrated monitoring of slopes movements in mountain regions: the Interreg project "SloMove"

Christian IASIO1, Claudia STRADA2, Giulia CHINELLATO1, Volkmar MAIR2

1EURAC, Italy; 2Autonomous Province of Bolzano, Italy

The uncertainty related to disasters generated by climate change and anthropogenic modifications of the environment, but never registered in the historical records of a certain area, adds yet another challenge for the decision makers, in terms of strategies, regulations and technologies adopted for protecting the communities without to limit their development and increasing their resilience to natural hazards.

With this regard, the role played by the precautionary monitoring in the risk governance become fundamental and may overcome the modeling of future events, which represented so far the predominant approach to these sorts of issues. This is particularly true considering geological and geomorphological events, which can eventually trigger catastrophic domino effects which can take people by surprise, but usually anticipated by useful precursors.

Significant progress over the past decade in Remote Sensing (RS), Proximal Sensing and integration-based sensor networks systems, provides technologies which allow nowadays implementing monitoring systems for ordinary surveys of wide areas, or regions, pervasively treated by landscape and slope instability. The scale factor of the observed area and the multiple purposes of such a regional ordinary surveys make convenient to adopt RS-based systems which would be too expansive if used only for a local problem, such as a specific landslide. Nevertheless, since dynamic and frequently updated mapping of evolving or emerging hazards may give rise to conflicts in territorial and urban planning, these monitoring systems are still scarcely contemplated among the institutional tools for risk governance.

The composite built by these technological and institutional issues is the focus of an Interreg project recently funded to South Tyrol (Italy) and Grisons (Switzerland), aimed to define a shared prototype of scalable technologies, best practices and institutional action plans to deal with evolving hazards in mountain areas densely populated and pervasively crossed by recreational and critical infrastructures.


Investigating weather parameters affecting snow avalanching in Alborz Mountains, Iran.

Rafat ZARE BIDAKI1, Micheal LEHNING2

1Shahrekord university, Iran, Islamic Republic of; 2WSL,Switzerland

Snow avalanches are significant natural hazards. The Karaj-Chalus road is placed in central Alborz Mountains. Every winter we encounter snow avalanches on this road. There is a limited amount of recorded avalanche data and weather data for this area. This research reported here is an investigation on weather the data is sufficient to characterize conditions of avalanching for the area. Thus we compared avalanche days (107 avalanche days were recorded during the winters 1986-2006) and non avalanche days with respect to weather data that are recorded at the Karaj weather station.

Comparing variances shows that snow depths in avalanche days and non avalanche days are significantly different. Precipitation on the 2-3 days before avalanche days release significantly differs from normal days. Snow water equivalent expected for the location of the weather station (2000 m a.s.l) is 98, 86 and 72 mm for 300, 100 and 30 year return period respectively.

Mean and maximum air temperatures on avalanche days and the day before are significantly different. Air temperature on avalanche days is significantly higher than normal winter days consistent with the observation that exclusively wet snow avalanches occur. Also the other weather parameters, sunshine, relative humidity and mean air pressure significantly differ between avalanche days and non-avalanche days.

Max and mean wind speeds on avalanche days and 2-3 days before are significantly higher than on non avalanche days and appear to have an important affect on avalanching. Also the results show that the most identifying parameter on avalanche days is temperature.

In general, weather parameters have important roles in avalanche release timing and these first results can be used to construct a simple statistical model of avalanche prediction.


Reinforced flexible systems for slope stabilization: an outstanding technology, fully proved in the Iberian area

Luis Miguel LAGUNA MEGAL

Freelance Consultant, Spain, Kingdom of

“Flexible Systems” concept refers to the installation of steel membranes over unstable mass in a slope, anchoring to transmit strengths onto stable terrain. “Hexagonal Mesh” has been worldwide used since more than 20 years as solution for erosion control and superficial instabilities. In the last 20 years, “Wire Rope Nets” have being used for geotechnical problems requiring higher bearing capacity, but mainly focused on locally retaining rock blocks in the range of a few m3. A System Concept was developed at middle of 90’s in Spain, extending the range of such last membranes to global slope stability problems, for higher bearing capacity required and deeper failure surfaces problems.

Around the year 2000, a new generation of high capacity membranes appeared, and began to be applied with the developed System Concept adapted to its own technical characteristics and in combination with additional reinforcement with steel ropes, providing remarkable advantages.

Unfortunately, low promotion of this outstanding solution has been done internationally, in spite of hundreds of complex geotechnical problems successfully solved thanks to this concept in Spain and surrounding countries, for more than the last 10 years. So, the technology of these excellent membranes is being usually applied in most countries in the lower range of its own possibilities, for superficial failures and up to 5 kN/m2 of bearing capacity. The “Iberian concept” currently provides solutions up to 140 kN/m2, and for surface failures as deep as in any other geotechnical problem.

It is described the System Concept, main elements, range of application, and a real case in Canary Islands, as clear example of benefits provided in so heterogeneous terrains, like extraordinary adaptability for different geotechnical problems in volcanic lands and very low environmental impact, solving problems where other “traditional concepts” applied failed after hard rainstorm events.



 
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