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TUE7.6: Risk, society and culture
Gender stereotypes and disaster vulnerabilities
International center for INtegrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Nepal, Federal Democratic Republic of
In India, the Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004 affected 2.79 million people and caused extensive damage. Yet, the tsunami occurred in a social world shaped by gender roles that determine access to resources and social rights. The severity of the impact of the disaster for men, women, boys, and girls varied according to an individual’s pre-disaster vulnerabilities. How can NGOs design and implement gender-sensitive programming during disasters? If NGOs mainstream gender in programming, can disaster relief make communities more equitable and just places to live for women and marginalized populations?
Gender and gender identity: the necessity of redefining
1Department of human science, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran; 2Islamic azad university, Iran, Islamic Republic of
Although differences of boys and girls socialization emphasis in all societies in there differences are very obvious in Iran. Traditional models of sexual separation are enforced on students. Gender is an important factor in the structuring of various opportunities, chances and social roles. In the study we aim to determinate to what extent girls accept their gender identity which social-individual factors influence their acceptance. Identity is a dynamic category and consists of different units that deals with individuals membership in different groups. Identity is encompasses extensive and various dimensions, one of which is gender identity. The present research the gender identity of the female students of the Islamic Azad University of Tabriz within a sample of 371 in the year 2010. The research is of a survey type and the data collection device is a questionnaire. The most influential social factors on gender identity in present research is based on Sandra-Bem and Albert-Bandoras sociology theories and the related researching results are: Gender discrimination in family, power pyramid in family, traditional job attitude, marriage case, father's job and mother's education. The obtained mean for the research variable are as follow: Accepting the gender identity 55.96, gender discrimination 26.86, power pyramid 63, traditional gender attitude 41.90, traditional job attitude 48.34 and religious beliefs 40. The results obtained from different statistical tests, such as variance analysis test, Pearsons correlation coefficient, and T-test showed that there is a significant relationship between gender identity and influential social factors among the factors effective on accepting gender identity in the present research, mother's education, father's job, gender discrimination in family, power pyramid in family, and traditional job attitude show a significant relationship with accepting the gender identity of the female students of the Islamic Azad University of Tabriz.
The tipping points of socioecological systems: Romans vs. Incas
1BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria, ISR; 2BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria, gW/N
The global society is now entering the Anthropocene as a period that follows the Holocene. The recent period is characterized by unprecedented vast use of energy with a devastating environmental impact. The risk of human induced natural disasters is exponentially rising as the resilience of the coupled atmospheric and ecologic system is diminishing especially due to “tipping points”. Although the anthropogenic global warming is unparalleled by any historical society, the cliodynamic approach to risk research such as portrayed by Diamond’s bestselling “Collapse” is based by the World System approach as a criterion for scaling historical showcases to be analyzed as “natural experiments of history”. Such a natural experiment of history is the collapse of the Roman Empire having started to erode according to Tainter with hyperinflation with shortage of slave supply as primary source of societal energy. In contrast the Incas developed a knowledge intensive Empire based on restoration ecology after the disastrous impact of the Medieval Climatic Anomaly. Soft power was the chief driver of their imperial expansion.
The appropriation of the nature and the social construction of the risk in Angangueo, Michoacán, Mexiko
1University of Michoacán, UMSNH. Mexico; 2National University of México. UNAM. México
Floods and landslides that had occurred in México, particularly in the State of Michoacán attracted the attention of the authorities to encourage further risk management development planning. In the town of Mineral de Angangueo, Michoacán a meteorological event with the possibility of a connection with the global climate change, this event was presented during January and February of 2010, which generate the floods and landslide risk of slopes in disaster. The studies in this work analyzes the construction of vulnerability depending on the appropriation of natural resources and the way of performing primary activities (agriculture, forestry, livestock, mining, harvesting, urban development, etc.), increasing the susceptibility of the threats. For this purpose, we used different methodological tools of sociology, history, economics and engineering. Analyzed the vulnerabilities based on the appropriation of natural resources. Were identified seismic hazards, landslides and floods. The analysis of indicators of risk management according to the criteria of the (BID) criteria evaluated at the municipal level. Finally as a result of all this work we propose a public policy agenda for local development.
Ethics and risk in finance
Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany
Very little attention has been given to the question of how to deal with financial risk from an ethical perspective. Who is responsible for the risks generated on financial markets? Which aggregate level of financial risk does the community or society have to bear? These questions have particular ethical relevance – especially in the current state of financial markets: Our time is dominated by a variety of global financial crises. Recent years have seen a flood of losses reported by banks, corporations, state and local governments that took a chance on risk. The leading cause of the crises which spread out across the globe is the transformation and re-allocation of risk. Managing und dispersing risk can have a profound impact on individualsʹ life opportunities. The purpose of my poster presentation will be to provide insights into the ethical dimensions of financial risks. My presentation will evolve around financial derivatives which are not only an integral part of the global financial system, but also an important means for the management of risk. Derivatives do not simply provide a means to exchange risk, but in fact can also create future uncertainties of systemic dimension which might be ethically inacceptable. I will identify several criteria which ought to guide policies in the context of financial risk. Theoretically and practically an ethical approach to financial risk-taking can provide us with new and important insights into areas as diverse as economic ethics, the philosophy of risk, and the structure of financial markets.
State and social factors in global disasters: topological scope
1Irkutsk State Technical University, Irkutsk, Russian Federation; 2International Informatization Academy, Moscow, Russian Federation; 3Court of Auditors, Regional Chamber of Control , Milan, Italy; 4San Raffaele Hospital Scientific Foundation, Milan, Italy; 5Institute of Internal Medicine, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation; 6Crimean Engineering and Pedagogical University, Simferopol, Ukraine
Haiti and Fukusima events were different in their pertinent state (formal) and social (informal) reactions to the disasters that happened in the countries. Thus, the problems in the disaster field are not only of natural and technological aspects but those of social and political. If detail risks concomitant to global disasters those depend on state power and social environment. One of the modern and fruitful analysis instruments for complicated social processes is complex network modeling. Contrary to plane complex networks (Barabasi networks, with nodes and links) a new spatial comprehensive network laces, CNL (or supercomplex networks), with stems, layers, nodes, and links) has been recently successfully applied for description of large-scaled socio-economic and biosocial systems. Current work has attempted to put into a focus a national state-social supercomplex network for further effective Risk Analysis and Disaster Management. The inherent problem of the approach is the right choice of indicators. It has been proposed to perform risk assessments of global disasters with taking into account power and social factors through calculating key CNL parameters. Thus, eccentricity of centralities for formal and informal layers is argued to be a sensitive indicator of topological risk for a national structure. The suggested development of trajectories in the “phase space” defined on the basis of possible significant parameters of CNL synthesize and summarize the individual information of separate indicators into easy to interpret factor scores. The CNL describes and clarifies quantitatively governmental and social impact on global disasters and emergencies, proposes pertinent visualization as a common language for experts of diverse disciplines and thus gives a roadmap for countering actions. Synergetic CNL is a prospective approach which promotes: (1) assessing topological risks in disaster management; (2) clarification of interagency, military and civilian collaboration.
The importance of the cultural approach to relocate the survivors of mount Merapi : a case study of survivors of Glagaharjo Community
Wahana Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia (Indonesia Friend of Earth), Indonesia, Republic of
Glagaharjo is a village that has the highest number of families who do not want to relocate after the November 2010 eruption of Mount Merapi as many as 389 families. Although this area has been set in the red zone that in the legal rules should not be occupied by residents and if they do that then they will not get any government assistance such as for rehabilitation and reconstruction, in fact the process of rehabilitation and reconstruction can be carried out independently and rapidly by the local community. They consider Mount Merapi as a close friend rather than as enemy to be abandoned forever. When he is “raging” or not in the good condition, the community of Glagaharjo knows what they should do. They will do evacuation for a moment, and when there is no dangerous activity by Mount Merapi after they can back and do re-build a life together. Indonesia Forum for Environment or Friends of Earth Indonesia (WALHI) is a Non-Government Organization which is facilitating the interest between the government and community of Glagaharjo after the eruption of Mount Merapi. This study focuses on the importance of the cultural approach in relocation that brings the issue of how government approaches community to do relocation after the eruption and how WALHI facilitates the community and government with participatory discussions approach to solve the problems. The findings in this study include the community of Glagaharjo does not want to move because there is no decision-making process that involves them in making the disaster-prone zone and the relocation rules. Researcher discovered the power of dialogue to be the key to understanding the wishes and a sense of trust from the community to the government should be established early so that all interests can be properly covered.