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Conference Agenda

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Session Overview
Session
TUE7.5: Urban risk
Time: Tuesday, 28/Aug/2012: 6:10pm - 7:30pm

Poster Session


Presentations

Collective actions for resilient urban areas

Shahnawaz SYED

Islamic Relief Worldwide, Bangladesh, People's Republic of

Urbanization is believed to be both – a cause and effect of economic growth, employment generation and overall development of any country. It is here to stay. The proposed presentation does not get into the merits or demerits of the phenomenon but, assuming it is here to stay, looks at the various aspects of how do we build a disaster preparedness into it for an overall risk reduction in urban areas. Expansion of urban population and urban construction have been so alarming that urban safety has become a crucial issue now-a-days, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh where rate of population growth (particularly in urban areas) is high, huge amount of money is being invested in planning and development of infrastructure, however the route taken for greater urbanization has been contentious and arguments can be proffered for and against it.

Reducing the urban risk which is never a one sided approach, has come centre stage of development in many developing countries including Bangladesh. The HFA 2005-2015 considers that both communities and local authorities should be empowered to manage and reduce disaster risk by having access to the necessary information, resources and authority to implement action. The challenge of involving local authority in Bangladesh is different regarding urban risk though it is considered as one of the global leaders in disaster management and risk reduction. Reducing and managing urban risk is rarified further due to other factors like very few capacity building initiatives, disintegrated policies, long-drawn-out decision-making process and financial constraint. Considering that urban risk reduction has to take a comprehensive and collaborative approach, Islamic Relief Worldwide come up with an approach where the communities have been empowered with a very good knowledge level on DRR, skill of response in case of emergency, and coordination with different relevant bodies to assess and minimize their risks


Assessing inter-agency capital response to terrorism: adaptive coordination

Natalia DELGADO

University of Southampton, United Kingdom

Drawing on social capital theory and dynamic organisational network analysis of organisations, this research investigates the emergency response inter-agency capital In the City of London (the interoperability between the Metropolitan Police, the Fire Brigade and the Red Cross) and its effectiveness in improving adaptive coordination between agencies, therefore improving the response to complex tasks such as responding to terrorist simultaneous land marks attacks. Inter-agency capital is a new incorporated concept tailored to explain how the relationship between groups in the agencies can improve the flow of resources which attributes to assets embedded in those relationships and networks. The 7th of July 2005 bombing attacks in London highlighted the complexity of multiagency problem solutions and coordination.

This project investigates response to terrorism through a sociological and computational framework to provide solutions to improve the inter-agency response to complex disasters such as the 7th of July 2005 bombings. The research uses agent-based simulation to examine the effect of inter-agency capital. The conceptual framework of this research consists (i) a hypothesis based on social capital theory “ the higher the levels of inter-agency capital interoperability (training interaction, sharing of information and cooperation) will generate high levels of adaptive coordination making inter-agency response more efficiently adaptable to uncertain complex crisis – simultaneous terrorist attacks” (ii) to assess past inter-agency capital present in the agencies in consideration and its effect on responding to past terrorist attacks (iii) to assess the effect of inter-agency capital in response to complex terrorist scenarios. The purpose of this research and its contribution is to provide a multidisciplinary theoretical framework towards the understanding of inter-agency response to terrorism. The findings of this research show an improvement in inter-agency capital leading to an improvement in adaptive coordination (implicit coordination) thus improving adaptability in complex systems.


A novel participatory sensing method for monitoring crowd conditions by collecting GPS location traces from pedestrians' mobile phones for real-time crowd management during city-scale mass gathering

Martin WIRZ1, Tobias FRANKE2, Eve MITLETON-KELLY3, Daniel ROGGEN1, Paul LUKOWICZ2, Gerhard TRÖSTER1

1ETH Zurich, Switzerland; 2University of Passau, Germany; 3London School of Economics, UK

City-wide mass events are popular gatherings in human societies all over the world. It is of top priority for event organizer to maintain a high standard of safety. However, the risk of dangerous crowd situations cannot be eliminated completely. Thus, there is a need for security personnel to detect critical crowd situations at an early stage to deploy adequate safety measures for resolving it. This requires real-time crowd behavior information. Existing video-based monitoring systems face various disadvantages such as poor low-light performance, time-consuming manual evaluation and, it remains challenging to automatically extract information from videos. For crowd monitoring, we see a big potential in inferring crowd behavior patterns by tracking the location of attendees via their mobile phones. The high distribution of location-aware mobile phones and the acceptance to share location information enables such an approach. We introduce methods based on pedestrian-behavior models to infer crowd condition patterns from GPS traces. In particular, we focus on detecting crowd density, turbulence, velocity and pressure. We further present an approach to visualize the extracted information as an easy-to-read heat map. During the 2010 Lord Mayor’s Show in London we deployed a system able to infer and visualize crowd behavior patterns in real-time from location updates provided by attendees. To motivate them to share their location information, a mobile festival app that provides users with event-related information including a festival program and point-of-interest-maps was offered. During the event, we received location updates from >800 festival attendees. The city of London Police used the visualizations to monitor the event. To understand the usefulness of our system, we learned through expert interviews that our approach helps to assess occurring crowd conditions and to spot critical situations faster compared to video-based methods. With that, appropriate measure can rapidly be deployed, helping to resolve a critical situation.


Shalstab application to identify the susceptible areas of shallow landslides in Cunha River Watershed, Rio Dos Cedros City, SC, Brazil

Gisele Marilha PEREIRA REGINATTO1, Marciano MACCARINI1, Masato KOBIYAMA1, Rafael Augusto dos Reis HIGASHI1, Ângela GRANDO1, Cláudia Weber CORSEUIL2, Manolo LIMA CARAMEZ1, Lais Brandao FEILSTRECKER3

1Federal University of Santa Catarina; 2Faculty of Engineering, Federal University of Pelotas; 3UFSC, France

The increased occurrence of natural disasters and the impacts they have caused society, especially in developing countries draws the attention of researchers so that mitigation measures consistent with the economic realities of the countries affected are adopted. Brazil has been suffering from disasters often associated with hydrological conditions, among which are the mass movements. The prediction of these phenomena is not a simple task, however, computer modeling combined with remote sensing techniques can aid in the understanding. This work employs the computational model Shalstab to identify areas susceptible to mass movements in the Cunha River Watershed in the municipality of Rio dos Cedros, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. These areas were characterized in relation to soil use, occupation and the slope of the land by means of satellite images and planialtimetric maps. The methodology consisted of mapping the scars resulting from movements in the study area, the determination of physical parameters and soil resistance, the development of a digital terrain model and its derivatives (slope and contribution area) and in the preparation of the map use and land cover. This study obtained data consistent with the reality of the area, where there is an evident predominance of native forest in the basin and in unstable areas, especially present in slopes between 20 ° and 30 °, and mapped the movements considered in this use as natural origin. Thus, this methodology can be applied in other regions and serve as an aid for public agencies to avoid these disasters.


The effect of community trust in adopting protective measures in Tehran city

Kiandokht MIRMOHAMMAD HOSSEINI1,2

1SOCIAL SECURITY ORGANIZATION OF IRAN,; 2ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN MEDICAL UNIT

Despite the efforts of emergency planners, based on the assumption that providing people with information about hazards will motivate the adoption of protective actions, people living in communities at risk from natural hazards continue to demonstrate a reticence to adopt protective measures. One reason for this has been the failure to accommodate the fact that it is not information per se that determines action, but how people interpret it in the context of experiences, believe and expectations that develop in and are sustained by the community and societal contexts in which they live. Important, but often neglected issue in this regard is the relationship between the community and the source of information and advice on disaster preparedness. In this regard recognition of effective social factors to bringing social trust into being in the society and subsequent to that, the effect of them to adopting protective measures has been studied.


Urban security based on IOT

Lijun YAN

Shanghai Normal University, China, People's Republic of

First the basic characteristics and architectures of the Internet of Things(IOT) are described, then the presentation introduces some practical applications of the technologies of the IOT which offer capabilities to identify and connect worldwide physical objects into a unified system, such as the applications of electronic tickets, mobile payment, waste disposal, urban emergency medical IOT , preventing invasion in Shanghai World Expo.

On the basis of powerful fiber-optic network and the technology of Wi-Fi, Mesh and WiMAX, with further extension, wireless broadband network can be built. At the same time, wireless broad base station will cover the whole city. And with the rapid development of IOT, it is a good opportunity for preventing disasters and improving urban security. IOT can make the focus of preventing disasters moved forward and transfer gradually from aiding after disasters to preventing primarily. It bring us revolutionary shift. By using Wireless Sensor Networks, RFID, IPR and Remote Location, we can get early warning of the environments hazard, residents and facilities of our cities. Founding network and computer system to collect and process information can enhance the automation and security of our cities.

Finally, some problems about IOT in the application of urban security are discussed. For example, we must take into consideration how to improve the reliability and validity of the data collection and transmission in the harsh climate environment, and how to ensure data transmission stability in some extreme environmental conditions etc.


Land use planning for disaster reduction in Uruapan, Michoacán, México

Patricia ALARCÓN1, Jose BELTRAN2

1University of Michoacán, Mexico; 2Technological of Monterrey

The city of Uruapan Michoacán is located in the south-central region of Mexico, the geographical coordinates of Uruapan are 100 ° 00 '100 ° 20' W longitude and 19 ° 30 '19 ° 45' north latitude. On February of 2011, an atypical rain was presented affecting and causing important damages in several municipalities in the state of Michoacán. The municipality of Uruapan, Michoacán was affected by the presence of multi-hazards, these hazards where detonated by the presence of the hydro-weather phenomenon. An important aspect was to convince the municipally authorities to make the DRR a priority in the public politics. In the beginning of the analysis was a great importance to make a research of the historical appropriation of the natural resources, and I could notice that the urban sprawl initially invaded a lacustrine valley and overtime they invaded the rivers. By other hand was really interesant to discover the existence of a underground tunnel that was made with the intention of changing the rivers flow in order to connect with another river flow. These were done approximately 90 years ago. The population forgot the existence of the tunnel and start building. So when the hydro weather phenomenon happened the hydrostatic pressure caused the collapse of tunnel, a big hole was created inside of a building with measures of 317 inches width 238 inches long and 238 inches depth. Important collapses were observed, causing severe hurts in approximately 25 housings. After this analysis, the technical-scientific exploration studies where done including analyses of data-bases of GIS, geophysical explorations, soil-mechanics and probabilistic model. The result of these studies where several hazard micro-zoning maps of liquefaction, subsidence, floods, seismic and micro-zoning of antropic hazard map. After all the research, all the results were used in order to create the risk sensitive use planning proposals for the municipality of Uruapan, Michoacán.



 
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