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TUE5.3: Capacity building and awareness
GRIP-CERAM Shanghai - a new model of capacity building
1Shanghai Normal University, China, People's Republic of; 2GRIP-CERAM Shanghai, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234; 3GRIP/BCPR/UNDP, 11-13 Chemin des Anémones, 1219 Châtelaine, Geneva, Switzerland
Since the establishment of the GRIP-backed Center of Excellence for Risk Assessment and Management (GRIP-CERAM Shanghai) that is jointly sponsored by GRIP (Global Risk Identification Programme) of UNDP and Shanghai Normal University in October, 2011, the center has established close cooperative relations with UNDP China, national and Shanghai local governments as well as academic institutions. The cooperative mechanism has been formed, based on the long-term cooperation in disaster risk assessment and management between the three sectors: (i) International organizations, (ii) China’s academic institutions and (iii) Government departments, which aims to cope with the challenge brought by natural and technological disasters.
The role of societal context in severe technical accidents
1BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria, ISR; 2San Pierro a Grado Nuclear Research Group, University of Pisa, Italy; 3BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria, gw/N
From an analysis of the accident in Chernobyl 20 years ago and from comparisons with other technological catastrophes of the last decades, social and institutional conditions are derived that are at the root of serious technical accidents. The guiding questions of the study are: (1) Were the organisational and structural conditions suitable to support the recognition of technical weaknesses of the plant before its installation or at least before an accident occurred? (2) How did the systems handle recognized technical weaknesses and precursors of the accident? How was the resulting risk taken into account? (3) Were the consequences of potential accidents minimised through extensive prior analyses of potential accident sequences? (3) Was the handling of the accident adequate or was the catastrophe possibly even amplified by lack of insight? Root causes underlying technological failures causing the different accidents and possibly human errors triggering them, were found to be economic considerations, errors of appraisal of limitations of technology and ensuing complacence, inadequacy of checks and balances, insufficient spread of information, prestige thinking and corporate interest of the involved industry. While nuclear technology and safety have been improved since Chernobyl, most of the root causes have not been addressed – they might even have gained relevance. The accident at Fukushima Daichi, and even more so the information communicated during and after the Fukushima accident by the nuclear establishment give indications in this direction. As Brychanov, the former director of Chernobyl nuclear power plant put it resignedly: Chernobyl has not taught anything to anyone.
READ - Risk Exposure Awareness and Deflection - creating an organization-wide risk awareness program
Bricade Ltd, New Zealand
System and Data breaches can be game changers for organizations that suffer major incidents. The key is to prevent the significant breach from happening in the first place.
Seven elements for capacity development for disaster risk reduction
1LUCRAM, Lund University, Sweden; 2Training Regions Research Centre, Lund University, Sweden
Disasters are not evenly distributed in the world. Developing countries are bearing the brunt of the death and destruction, and the international community has identified capacity development for disaster risk reduction as a vital tool to substantially reduce disaster losses. However, not all capacity development projects have resulted in improved capacity for disaster risk reduction in the intended countries.
Social learning in education – an important step in practical integration of preventive risk reduction and adaptation to climate change
1Centre for Climate and Safety, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; 2Evaluation and Monitoring Department, Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, Karlstad, Sweden; 3Bergisch University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany
The potential of linking the preventive phase of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) with the adaptation in human society to forecasted consequences from climate change, has received growing acceptance internationally, but the integration of both fields is still at an embryonic stage. Integration in this case implies transdisciplinary approaches in complex fields where liabilities and stakeholders normally are found in different sectors and levels in society. For integration to be successful, a first step is to create platforms and contexts where participants may generate raised awareness about each other’s roles and evolve a shared problem identification. Social learning is a concept that has been used in many different contexts where uncertainty and change are crucial and challenging. It has earlier been linked as a suitable approach to issues such as public participation, governance or natural resource management. Here it is used in education, gathering among others stakeholders working within the fields of Flood Risk Management, DRR and Climate Change Adaptation at local or regional level around the two Swedish lakes Vänern and Mälaren. Teaching arrangements and didactic elements are described for the two pilot-courses that were held 2009-2010. The academic institutional arrangements favoured an open exchange and knowledge building, with local examples of management and strategies repeatedly in focus during several study visits in different cities along the shoreline. The elements of social learning facilitated the build-up of shared holistic perspectives, identified areas in need of development or research efforts and contributed to informal as well as formal relationships among participants.