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TUE5.6: Critical Infrastructures I
Strategic risk management by a roads provider
Swiss Federal Roads Office (FEDRO), Switzerland
The goal of the presentation is to give an overview of how FEDRO's infrastructure division identifies, monitors and manages its strategic risks. It primarily deals with technical and environmental risks, and touches on some societal risks. Reference is made to two complementing presentations FEDRO proposes, which look at two specific risk categories of FEDRO's, viz natural hazards and dangerous goods transport.
Prevention of major accidents in road transportation of dangerous goods
As within the EU by the Seveso Directive, the protection of the public and the environment from serious damage in Switzerland is based on the directive on the prevention of major accidents. Unlike the EU, the Swiss legislation also includes transportation of dangerous goods on traffic routes (railways, roads, marine). Aside from companies handling hazardous materials the Swiss regulation thus requires in particular also owners of traffic routes, which serve the transport of dangerous goods to investigate the possi-ble risks and to take all safety measures that are appropriate to reduce the risks. Road owners, such as FEDRO, apply a two-stage investigation process. The first step considers the probability of a possible event on the basis of summary data on traffic- and road conditions and the environment of a section. The evaluation of the results is presented in the form of a probability-consequence chart, which is based on a set of typical standard scenarios covering fire-, explosion- and release of toxic gas events. It represents the risk situation in a semi quantitative manner. The first step indicates whether the identfied risks are acceptable or not; that means, whether the existing safety measures are sufficient to reduce the risks to a satisfactory level. If not, a second in-depth study is necessary, which includes the elaboration of a quantitative risk analysis taking in account all available data with the highest possible precision and substance-related dispersion models. If the second step confirms the estimated risks of the first study, further safety measures outside of the standard regulations for road buildings have to be developed and implemented. These studies have been applied by the FEDRO on the Swiss national roads; normally associated with the development and scheduled maintenance of road sections. In the presentation, the main results of the investigations will also be presented.
Measuring performance functionality of roads after earthquake
1M.Sc of transportation planning , Islamic Azad University -South Tehran branch, Iran, Islamic Republic of; 2Assistant professor, Faculty of environment, University of Tehran, Iran; 3Member of Scientific board, Logistic & Disaster Management Dept, Road & Building & Urban Development Research Center Ministry of Road & Urban Development
Earthquake is amongst natural hazards which lead to distraction in the function of traffic lifelines. Road networks are exposed to high vulnerability due to geographical dispersion, extensive functions and structural reliability to geophysics.
Risk assessment of the buried fuel pipelines in the City of Kermanshah, Iran
Young researchers Club, Iran, Islamic Republic of
Iran is one of the most seismically active countries in the world, being crossed by several major fault lines that cover at least 90% of the country. As a result, earthquakes in Iran occur often and are destructive. Lifelines such as fuel pipeline systems are geographically dispersed over broad areas, and are exposed to a wide range of seismic and geotechnical hazards, community uses, and interactions with other sectors of the built environment. This paper, in respect of damage analysis, concentrates on the assessment of fuel pipeline systems buried underneath the city of Kermanshah, leakage and failure in pipelines and post-earthquake fires. Assessment of the seismic damage to buried fuel pipelines of Kermanshah is calculated for three probable scenario earthquakes in the study area. After hazard analyze, using the repair rate relations, damage to pipelines is estimated. All the steps of damage assessment for buried pipelines were written in a GIS environment. Finally, the probability distribution function for the area, the population and the number of houses exposed to fire and explosion after the earthquake are calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation method through numerous repetitions (10,000 times). Finally two proposed hardening strategies for fire damage reduction in the Kermanshah area are investigated in the second stage and the damage is investigated by repeating the process.
Risk concept for natural hazards on motorway in Switzerland
The Swiss Federal Roads Office (FEDRO) has initiated a programme to analyse, assess and manage the risks associated with gravity induced natural hazards (rockfalls, landslides, avalanches, as well as floods and debris flows) on the motorway network in Switzerland. In a first step, the methodological background was developed in order to guarantee transparent and standardised hazard and risk assessment, as well as cost-efficient and cost effective management of the identified risks.
USA building code changes resulting from 9/11 attacks
CTLGroup, United States of America
Although commercial buildings cannot be designed to survive impact from the largest aircraft and still be commercially viable, the 9/11 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City disclosed several places where building codes could be improved to increse surviveability of occupants in extreme events. The American Society of Civil Engineers and Federal Emergency Management Agency carried out an investigation, headed by the author, of building performance of the twin towers after the 9/11 attacks. This was followed by an extensive research study by NIST. Based on the ASCE/FEMA and NIST studies, a large number of building standards changes were recommended. This paper describes the attacks, indicates how the towers collapsed, summarizes the recommended standards changes and presents those changes that have been made to date. The impact on building safety during extreme events is discussed.