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Conference Agenda

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Session Overview
MON5.6: Integrative earthquake risk management
Time: Monday, 27/Aug/2012: 2:40pm - 4:10pm
Session Chair: Patrick SMIT, National Emergency Operations Centre
Session Chair: Christian H. BARTHELT, Munich Re Foundation
Location: Sanada 1



Relationship between community empowerment and citizens' interest in participation in natural disaster management: case study earthquake at Tehran districts' level

Shabbou VAZIRPOUR1, Ali Akbar REZAEI2

1Tehran Disaster Mitigation and Management Organization, Science & Research Tehran Azad University, Iran, Islamic Republic of; 2Science & Research Tehran Azad University

Today, due to increasing urbanization and growing urban population, prevention and disaster risk reduction especially in earthquakes prone areas is one of the major challenges in urban management. Tehran, the same as many world cities, located on several active faults, with high population, lots of economic and administrative centers and vulnerable buildings and structures, is exposed to risks of occurrence of earthquake and sooner or later will be faced with such a challenge. In order for this risk to be reduced, community should be empowered. This research aims to review relationship between Tehran citizens' empowerment and their interest in increasing their participation in earthquake disaster management and tries to review relationship between information dissemination and awareness raising, training, Sensitization, fatalism and social trust as independent variables for citizens' empowerment, with Tehran citizens' interest in enhancing participation in disaster management and earthquake. Based on selection criteria and scoring, in three earthquakes- prone districts of Tehran, 390 citizens over 15 were selected randomly as respondent. In this research, with making use of questionnaire, data has been gathered. Analysis of field data demonstrates relationship between empowerment of citizens and their interest in increasing participation in disaster management and earthquakes. Based on findings and according to 93.3 percent of respondents' viewpoints, earthquake is the second threat for Tehran following air pollution, but few measures have been taken regarding prevention and preparedness against earthquakes. This will be discussed during this article.

Addressing risk and resilience: an analysis of Māori communities and cultural technologies in response to the Christchurch earthquakes

Christine Marie KENNEY1, David JOHNSTON2, Douglas PATON3, John REID4, Suzanne Rachel PHIBBS5

1Edith Cowan University, Australia; 2Joint Centre for Disaster Research/GNS Science, New Zealand; 3University of Tasmania, Australia; 4Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu, New Zealand; 5Massey University, New Zealand

Since September 2010 a series of earthquakes have caused widespread social, financial and environmental devastation in Christchurch, New Zealand. Cultural strengths that are protective in times of adversity have been noted in Māori communities but how these qualities are operationalised following natural disasters has rarely been documented.

A research project conducted in partnership with the local Iwi (tribe) Ngāi Tahu, is addressing this knowledge gap through identifying, and documenting the ways cultural factors facilitate recovery and sustain resilience in Māori communities impacted by earthquakes. A qualitative research methodology (Te Whakamāramatanga), based on Ngāi Tahu values, and practices has shaped the community-based participatory research design. The culturally relevant approach has facilitated trusting relationships between researchers and local Māori communities. Community engagement has been fostered, as well as capture of Māori understandings and practices associated with hazard mitigation, disaster preparedness, response and recovery. Data analysis draws on social and risk theories as well as indigenous epistemological concepts. Initial analysis suggests that cultural, relational and moral technologies interact to create a framework that supports recovery and sustains resilience in Māori communities. Emergent cultural technologies and models of resilience will be inter-related with Paton’s adaptive capacity model of community resilience, which will facilitate acknowledgement and linkage of Māori knowledge, values and practices with global understandings of resilience.

The research is facilitating a review of tribal social/emergency services and practices, and supporting programme development aimed at building Māori capacity in disaster preparedness, as well as promoting community recovery and resilience. Participation in policy development, through ongoing Ngāi Tahu engagement with the Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority as well as local and national government is being fostered. Cultural knowledge arising from the research will inform urban and regional disaster preparedness planning in ways that mitigate the impact of future disasters on the indigenous population.

Role of local wisdom in rapidity of rehabilitation and reconstruction post earthquake in multireligious and monoreligious villages: a case in Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia


Graduate School, University of Gadjah Mada, Indonesia, Republic of

Earthquake which occurred on May 27, 2006 at 05:54 in Yogyakarta at magnitude 6.3 SR causing severe damage in Bantul Regency, especially Sumbermulyo Village, Bambanglipuro District which is a multireligious village and Wonokromo Village, Pleret District which is a monoreligious village. This research aims to determine the speed of rehabilitation and reconstruction after the earthquake, which is affected by the local wisdom that developed in both villages.

Local wisdom that developed in the multireligious village and monoreligious village is analyzed using qualitative-descriptive analysis. Differences in the rapidity of rehabilitation and reconstruction in the multireligious village and monoreligious village is determined by using quantitative analysis that is a statistical test: independent sample T-test. Implementation of local wisdom in the post-earthquake rehabilitation and reconstruction by the community in multireligious village and monoreligious village is analyzed using qualitative-descriptive analysis.

The results showed local wisdom in Wonokromo Village (monoreligious village) is still influenced by the dominant religion that is Moslem, while in Sumbermulyo Village (multi-religious village), local wisdom is not affected by the dominant religious factor. There is significant differences of rehabilitation speed between Wonokromo Village and Sumbermulyo Village. Residential reconstruction speed in the monoreligious village is faster than multireligious village. However, the reconstruction of public facilities is faster in multireligious village, because the community are more willing to accept foreign aid. The rehabilitation of disaster victims run faster in monoreligious village, due to religious background similarity can support the understanding of fate and trust. Implementation of local wisdom in the post-earthquake rehabilitation and reconstruction in multireligious village and monoreligious village is greatly influenced by the difference in religious affiliation of the community, acceptance of foreign aid, local institutional types that developed in the village, and local resources as the local skills.

DRHOUSE project: the ASA module for the post earthquake structural assessment


EUCENTRE Foundation, Italy, Republic of

The project DRHOUSE (Development of Rapid Highly-specialized Operative Units for Structural Evaluation) is inserted within the perspective of integrating the shortage of disaster-response capacity at the European level in the field of post-earthquake structural evaluation. The main objective is the development and implementation of a new Civil Protection Module able to ensure a rapid and effective response in the field of the post-earthquake damage and safety assessment targeted to enhance the European Rapid Response Capability within the European Community Mechanism for civil protection.

The European rapid response capability is based on the development of civil protection modules of the Member States, which are self-sufficient task and needs driven services. Each MODULE is an autonomous operational team representing a combination of human and material means, described by specific tasks, capacities, components, self-sufficiency and deployment, possibly interoperable with other modules, according to the Decision 2008/73/EC, Euratom (december 2007), which defines general requirements for European Civil Protection modules.

Following recently identified quantitative gaps related to the earthquake emergency in the current state of the Mechanism, the project DRHOUSE aims at integrating the shortage of disaster-response capacity at the EU level in the field of post-earthquake structural evaluation. The project propose the development and implementation of a new "capacity" for the Mechanism, as a new "module for the post-disaster structural evaluation".

The capability has been conceived as a MACRO-MODULE composed by three modules, which can either inter-operate or work independently, according to the possible intervention scenarios:

1. Basic Seismic Assessment module (BSA): for ordinary usability assessment

2. Advanced Seismic Assessment module (ASA): for strategic / complex structures

3. Short-term countermeasures module (STC): to prop up damaged structures and infrastructures.

The TREES Lab Section of the EUCENTRE Foundation is responsible for the Advanced Seismic Assessment module (ASA), for strategic / complex structures, with dedicated instrumentation

Policy impact and livelihood recovery of retailers in earthquake affected cities


The University of Melbourne, Australia

The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of the long-term recovery process of retailers in two cities of Bam in Iran and Bhuj in India affected by earthquakes in 2003 and 2001 respectively. Drawing upon field data collection in these two cities and examination of policy documents, the paper focuses on identifying the ramifications of recovery programmes for livelihood recovery of small businesses and retailers located within the old fabric of these cities. The discussion about the ways in which recovery policies have facilitated or impeded retailers’ capability to recover from the earthquake-induced impacts should be viewed in the wider context of post-disaster recovery process. On this basis, this investigation is pursued by looking at a range of the recovery programme’s considerations at different levels, from policies targeting the economic revival of the affected region and livelihood initiatives in the city, to policies dealing with micro-level recovery of small businesses that have impinged upon recovery trajectory of these groups. The paper compares and contrasts the recovery policies at these different levels, while locating them in the overall socio-political context in which the recovery process has taken place. Despite differences in recovery approach between the two case studies, similar issues including difficulties of tenant shopkeepers and small neighbourhood retailers - compared to those trading in business niches in these cities - as well as inefficiency of direct interventions of public sector in benefiting the earthquake-affected groups are identified. These problems and disparities are argued to primarily stem from the recovery policies that have been shaped and reshaped by competing economic and political forces in these two societies. The paper concludes with some policy recommendations for formulating more inclusive livelihood recovery programmes in disaster-affected cities of developing countries.

Recovery and resilience of industry and geographic sectors after the 2010 and 2011 Canterbury earthquakes

Hlekiwe KACHALI1, Erica SEVILLE2, John VARGO2,3

1Department of Civil and Natural Resources Engineering, University of Canterbury, New Zealand; 2Resilient Organisations Research Programme; 3Department of Accouting and Information Systems, University of Canterbury, New Zealand

Canterbury New Zealand experienced four earthquakes greater than MW 6.0 between September 2010 and December 2011. This study employs system dynamics and brings together data collected via surveys, case studies and interviews with organisations affected by the earthquakes to show how systemic interactions and interdependencies within and between industry and geographic sectors affect their recovery post-disaster. The industry sectors in the study are: construction for its role in the rebuild, information and communication technology which is a regional high-growth industry, trucking for logistics, critical infrastructure for provision of essential services as well as fast moving consumer goods (e.g. supermarkets) and hospitality to track recovery through non-discretionary and discretionary spend respectively. Also in the study are three urban centres including the region’s largest Central Business District which has been inaccessible since the earthquake of 22 February 2011.

Organisations report that some of the most disruptive effects of the earthquakes were staff wellbeing and customer issues both of which are not direct physical impacts. Key to recovery was the pivotal role staff played in the response and recovery phases. Additionally, findings show that organisational pre-disaster preparedness is not the major factor in recovery after a regional disaster. This work also highlights how earthquake effects propagated between sectors and how sectors collaborated to mitigate difficulties such as product demand instability. Other interacting factors are identified that influence the recovery trajectories of the different sectors. These are resource availability, insurance payments, aid from central government, timely and quality recovery information.

This work seeks to bring together research and practice as well as demonstrate that in recovering from disaster, it is crucial for organisations to not only recognise what interacting factors could affect them but also how to reduce their vulnerability and importantly increase their resilience to multiple hazards.

Causes of success and failure in post disaster reconstruction projects – a case study of post 2005 earthquake rehabilitation and reconstruction in Northern Pakistan

Muhammad Abbas CHOUDHARY1, Kashif MEHMOOD2

1University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila, Pakistan, Pakistan, Islamic Republic of; 2College of E&ME, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

An earthquake of 7.6 Richter scale hit northern Pakistan on October 8, 2005 and damaged and area of 30,000 square kilometers, 75,000 people were killed, over 85,000 injured, infrastructure was partially to completely damaged and over 3.5 million were left homeless. The scale of disaster warranted the creation of Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority (ERRA), and massive reconstruction efforts by government and international humanitarian groups were launched. After 6 years and billions of rupees in spending has rebuilt only 57% of the roads, schools, hospitals, 90% projects are behind schedule and 70 have cost variations. This research based on the interviews of the key stakeholders, construction and disaster management personnel and affected society endeavors to capture the causes of success and failure of this massive reconstruction effort. The research aims to establish the project success criteria, and to explore the causes of success and failure as applicable to such mega disaster. Data was gathered through survey questionnaires, structured and semi structured interviews of key stakeholders. The results were validated using statistical methods. Meeting the schedule, budget and stakeholders’ satisfaction evolved as primary success criteria for measuring the performance of post disaster construction projects. From the response on fifty-five variables, this study extracted important success and failure factors of post-disaster reconstruction projects by using factors analysis. Clarity of goals, detailed planning, full-time experienced project manager, detailed written contracts and effective monitoring emerged as five critical success factors. Five factors critical to failure factors were shortage of resources, financial problems, lengthy decision process, excessive subletting and excessive centralization. A framework to deal with serious large scale calamities and for better handling of the mega reconstruction and rehabilitation effort is proposed. This study also develops a comprehensive base for future research, especially in the determination of success factors in rehabilitation and reconstruction projects.

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