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MON5.6: Integrative earthquake risk management
Relationship between community empowerment and citizens' interest in participation in natural disaster management: case study earthquake at Tehran districts' level
1Tehran Disaster Mitigation and Management Organization, Science & Research Tehran Azad University, Iran, Islamic Republic of; 2Science & Research Tehran Azad University
Today, due to increasing urbanization and growing urban population, prevention and disaster risk reduction especially in earthquakes prone areas is one of the major challenges in urban management. Tehran, the same as many world cities, located on several active faults, with high population, lots of economic and administrative centers and vulnerable buildings and structures, is exposed to risks of occurrence of earthquake and sooner or later will be faced with such a challenge. In order for this risk to be reduced, community should be empowered. This research aims to review relationship between Tehran citizens' empowerment and their interest in increasing their participation in earthquake disaster management and tries to review relationship between information dissemination and awareness raising, training, Sensitization, fatalism and social trust as independent variables for citizens' empowerment, with Tehran citizens' interest in enhancing participation in disaster management and earthquake. Based on selection criteria and scoring, in three earthquakes- prone districts of Tehran, 390 citizens over 15 were selected randomly as respondent. In this research, with making use of questionnaire, data has been gathered. Analysis of field data demonstrates relationship between empowerment of citizens and their interest in increasing participation in disaster management and earthquakes. Based on findings and according to 93.3 percent of respondents' viewpoints, earthquake is the second threat for Tehran following air pollution, but few measures have been taken regarding prevention and preparedness against earthquakes. This will be discussed during this article.
Addressing risk and resilience: an analysis of Māori communities and cultural technologies in response to the Christchurch earthquakes
1Edith Cowan University, Australia; 2Joint Centre for Disaster Research/GNS Science, New Zealand; 3University of Tasmania, Australia; 4Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu, New Zealand; 5Massey University, New Zealand
Since September 2010 a series of earthquakes have caused widespread social, financial and environmental devastation in Christchurch, New Zealand. Cultural strengths that are protective in times of adversity have been noted in Māori communities but how these qualities are operationalised following natural disasters has rarely been documented.
Role of local wisdom in rapidity of rehabilitation and reconstruction post earthquake in multireligious and monoreligious villages: a case in Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Graduate School, University of Gadjah Mada, Indonesia, Republic of
Earthquake which occurred on May 27, 2006 at 05:54 in Yogyakarta at magnitude 6.3 SR causing severe damage in Bantul Regency, especially Sumbermulyo Village, Bambanglipuro District which is a multireligious village and Wonokromo Village, Pleret District which is a monoreligious village. This research aims to determine the speed of rehabilitation and reconstruction after the earthquake, which is affected by the local wisdom that developed in both villages.
DRHOUSE project: the ASA module for the post earthquake structural assessment
EUCENTRE Foundation, Italy, Republic of
The project DRHOUSE (Development of Rapid Highly-specialized Operative Units for Structural Evaluation) is inserted within the perspective of integrating the shortage of disaster-response capacity at the European level in the field of post-earthquake structural evaluation. The main objective is the development and implementation of a new Civil Protection Module able to ensure a rapid and effective response in the field of the post-earthquake damage and safety assessment targeted to enhance the European Rapid Response Capability within the European Community Mechanism for civil protection.
Policy impact and livelihood recovery of retailers in earthquake affected cities
The University of Melbourne, Australia
The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of the long-term recovery process of retailers in two cities of Bam in Iran and Bhuj in India affected by earthquakes in 2003 and 2001 respectively. Drawing upon field data collection in these two cities and examination of policy documents, the paper focuses on identifying the ramifications of recovery programmes for livelihood recovery of small businesses and retailers located within the old fabric of these cities. The discussion about the ways in which recovery policies have facilitated or impeded retailers’ capability to recover from the earthquake-induced impacts should be viewed in the wider context of post-disaster recovery process. On this basis, this investigation is pursued by looking at a range of the recovery programme’s considerations at different levels, from policies targeting the economic revival of the affected region and livelihood initiatives in the city, to policies dealing with micro-level recovery of small businesses that have impinged upon recovery trajectory of these groups. The paper compares and contrasts the recovery policies at these different levels, while locating them in the overall socio-political context in which the recovery process has taken place. Despite differences in recovery approach between the two case studies, similar issues including difficulties of tenant shopkeepers and small neighbourhood retailers - compared to those trading in business niches in these cities - as well as inefficiency of direct interventions of public sector in benefiting the earthquake-affected groups are identified. These problems and disparities are argued to primarily stem from the recovery policies that have been shaped and reshaped by competing economic and political forces in these two societies. The paper concludes with some policy recommendations for formulating more inclusive livelihood recovery programmes in disaster-affected cities of developing countries.
Recovery and resilience of industry and geographic sectors after the 2010 and 2011 Canterbury earthquakes
1Department of Civil and Natural Resources Engineering, University of Canterbury, New Zealand; 2Resilient Organisations Research Programme; 3Department of Accouting and Information Systems, University of Canterbury, New Zealand
Canterbury New Zealand experienced four earthquakes greater than MW 6.0 between September 2010 and December 2011. This study employs system dynamics and brings together data collected via surveys, case studies and interviews with organisations affected by the earthquakes to show how systemic interactions and interdependencies within and between industry and geographic sectors affect their recovery post-disaster. The industry sectors in the study are: construction for its role in the rebuild, information and communication technology which is a regional high-growth industry, trucking for logistics, critical infrastructure for provision of essential services as well as fast moving consumer goods (e.g. supermarkets) and hospitality to track recovery through non-discretionary and discretionary spend respectively. Also in the study are three urban centres including the region’s largest Central Business District which has been inaccessible since the earthquake of 22 February 2011.
Causes of success and failure in post disaster reconstruction projects – a case study of post 2005 earthquake rehabilitation and reconstruction in Northern Pakistan
1University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila, Pakistan, Pakistan, Islamic Republic of; 2College of E&ME, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
An earthquake of 7.6 Richter scale hit northern Pakistan on October 8, 2005 and damaged and area of 30,000 square kilometers, 75,000 people were killed, over 85,000 injured, infrastructure was partially to completely damaged and over 3.5 million were left homeless. The scale of disaster warranted the creation of Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority (ERRA), and massive reconstruction efforts by government and international humanitarian groups were launched. After 6 years and billions of rupees in spending has rebuilt only 57% of the roads, schools, hospitals, 90% projects are behind schedule and 70 have cost variations. This research based on the interviews of the key stakeholders, construction and disaster management personnel and affected society endeavors to capture the causes of success and failure of this massive reconstruction effort. The research aims to establish the project success criteria, and to explore the causes of success and failure as applicable to such mega disaster. Data was gathered through survey questionnaires, structured and semi structured interviews of key stakeholders. The results were validated using statistical methods. Meeting the schedule, budget and stakeholders’ satisfaction evolved as primary success criteria for measuring the performance of post disaster construction projects. From the response on fifty-five variables, this study extracted important success and failure factors of post-disaster reconstruction projects by using factors analysis. Clarity of goals, detailed planning, full-time experienced project manager, detailed written contracts and effective monitoring emerged as five critical success factors. Five factors critical to failure factors were shortage of resources, financial problems, lengthy decision process, excessive subletting and excessive centralization. A framework to deal with serious large scale calamities and for better handling of the mega reconstruction and rehabilitation effort is proposed. This study also develops a comprehensive base for future research, especially in the determination of success factors in rehabilitation and reconstruction projects.