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THU4.2: “Making the Connection” – Practical experiences on linking disaster disk reduction, climate change adaptation and ecosystem management
Session organized by GIZ
“Making the connection” – practical experiences on linking disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation and ecosystem management
GIZ, Germany, Federal Republic of
Within an overall global context of increased land degradation, urbanization, scarcity of resources and population growth, disasters further exacerbate existing poverty and inequality and reverse development gains. In addition, due to climate change - leading to more frequent and severe weather events such as storms, floods and droughts - communities and ecosystems are confronted with a “new” stress factor.
Mozambican Experiences with Disaster Risk Reduction & Climate Change Adaptation
Linking Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation: new challenges and new insights from the IPCC SREX report and own Studies
UNITED NATIONS UNIVERSITY Institute for Environment and Human Security
Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) are interconnected thematic areas which both deal with common themes and address similar issues such as the impact of extreme weather events on vulnerable people as well as aim to reduce this vulnerability. However, both communities often still operate in parallel without sufficient exchange and collaboration.
Enhancing community resilience for climate adaptation and disaster risk reduction – a case study from Cambodia
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
Several coastal communities in Cambodia, facing predicted sea-level rise coupled with poverty and degrading ecosystems, are at high risk from climate related changes and other disasters. IUCN and its local partners are implementing a 4-year EU funded project aiming at designing ecosystem-based adaptation and risk reduction pilot activities providing opportunities for other communities in the coastline to learn from each other. Koh Kapik, a fishing village of 1,100 people, is only accessible via boat. Assessment studies of the area indicate increasing mangrove deforestation, coastal erosion, high winds and frequent occurrence of storms for the past decade. There is significant increase in sedimentation causing the two kilometer primary access, to and from the village, via a creek almost impossible, forcing the villagers to use the open sea. This route, longer and unsafe due to strong tides, has resulted in the villagers spending more on fuel, damages to boats, and accidents; thereby, making access to markets, freshwater, health, education, etc. hazardous and expensive. This has also exposed the community to disasters; as in case of strong storms, the nearly impassable creek is the only escape route for the villagers. Hence, the local communities ranked creek rehabilitation as a top priority during the Vulnerability Assessment exercise. Further, a cost-benefit exercise pointed out the high return on investment for this activity due to resulting monetary and other benefits including risk reduction. IUCN is now facilitating the rehabilitation of the creek through ecosystem-sensitive planning. The area has been surveyed; the dredged sediment will be properly disposed and the mangrove replantation undertaken at appropriate sites to minimize future sedimentation. Possibilities of sustainable financing mechanisms are also being explored to develop a fund to be used for maintenance and conservation purposes.
Integrated management of the mangrove forest ecosystem for improved climate resilience in Vietnam
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Vietnam
Vietnam is located in the tropical monsoon area - one of the five storm prone areas in the Asia Pacific region and is seen as one of the 5 countries in the world that are most vulnerable to sea level rise. Over the past 5 years, on average, disasters have resulted in the deaths of 400 people and caused economic losses of between 1 -1,5% of GDP. Therefore, the Government of Vietnam has paid great efforts to climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR) while improving environmental management and community resilience. Under the Government’s political guidance, a comprehensive institutional and policy framework has been set up at both national and sub-national level and an integrated approach has been applied which includes coordinated interdisciplinary and participatory processes, where local communities are seen as the driving force. In particular, the natural protection function of mangrove forests can be used in CCA and DRR but mangroves are threatened by human impacts and by the impacts of climate change. The project “Management of Natural Resources in the Coastal Zone of Soc Trang Province” is testing innovative approaches to integrated management of mangrove forest ecosystem for improved CCA and DRR. The approach recognizes that planting alone is of little use and that newly planted mangroves must also be protected from human impacts such as destructive fishing methods. Innovative planting techniques which mimic natural regeneration, such as planting in high densities close to established trees, have been tested. Bamboo wave breakers and T-shaped fences which reduce erosion and stimulate sedimentation are used as a prerequisite for mangrove rehabilitation in erosion sites. Three years of co-management implementation has shown that co-management is an effective way of maintaining and enhancing the protection function of mangrove forests and at the same time providing livelihood for local communities.